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The 15th annual A Celebration of Scholarship! will be held the week of April 11, 2016 at John Carroll University. All events are free and open to the public unless otherwise noted.

The majority of events will be held in the Dolan Center for Science and Technology. See the schedule below for details on event locations. This schedule is subject to change; check back frequently for updates.

TUESDAY, APRIL 12, 2016: 2:00-3:15 PM

TUE 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session A
Individual Paper Session
Moderator: Dr. Elizabeth Antus, Theology & Religious Studies
Dolan Science Center, A202
(1) Alora Cinicola: “Opinions of Catholic University Students on Continuum of Life Issues”
(2) Mary Coffey: “Praying with Images: Encountering God through Creative Expression”
(3) Pam Chaney: ““Go and See”: Creating Community, Not Clients in Mark 6:34-44”

A.1. Opinions of Catholic University Students on Continuum of Life Issues
Alora Cinicola, Undergraduate
This research focuses on determining whether or not Catholic Social Teaching impacts the opinions of Catholic university students. In particular, this study is interested in whether or not there is a correlation between exposure to Catholic Social Teaching and a stronger predilection to favoring the “seamless garment of life,” the Catholic idea that life must be protected from the womb to the tomb. Opinions on abortion and the death penalty are of particular interest in this study. The impact of Catholic Social Teaching on Catholic university students was inconclusive. However, the data collected was consistent with previous studies in regards to gender, political ideology, and views of God.

A.2. Praying with Images: Encountering God through Creative Expression
Mary Coffey, Graduate Student
My presentation will explore the usefulness of enhancing kataphatic prayer with artistic interpretations of visual images from one’s imagination as a way of encountering God. I will also examine creativity as a way to express our voices, which is especially critical in those places and under those circumstances where we are encouraged to be silent. The importance of expressing emotions, generally and through prayer, will be unpacked, and the benefit of expressing emotions through the modality of art-making will be addressed. Finally, I will assess the helpfulness of this approach in an art journaling retreat setting by analyzing questionnaires completed by participants in the retreat.

A.3. “Go and See”: Creating Community, Not Clients in Mark 6:34-44
Pam Chaney, Graduate Student
Mark 6:34-44 famously describes the feeding narrative in which Jesus, with 5 loaves of bread and 2 fish, provides enough food for over 5000 men. (And where are the women and children?) Often overlooked is the role of the crowd in this miracle, and the disciples initial reaction to the mission, which is, paraphrasing: ‘Let them buy their own food. Do we look like we’re made of money?’ Today, many of us have heard, “No money, no mission.” This essay seeks to look closer at Jesus’ response to the disciples when they declare their lack of “200 denari” (enough money) to ask: Why does Jesus command, “Go and see,” what do the disciples learn in doing so, and what can those who desire to respond to the call and Caller today learn from this passage which can inform, encourage, and empower their ministry, especially to the poor?

TUE 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session C
Individual Paper Session

Moderator: Dr. Wendy Wiedenhoft Murphy, Sociology & Criminology
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room
(1) Dr. Greg DiLisi: “Remembering the S. S. Edmund Fitzgerald”
(2) Grace Donnelly: “Understanding Public Perceptions of U.S. Immigration Policy and Recommendations for Improving Immigration Policy”

C.1. Remembering the S. S. Edmund Fitzgerald
Dr. Greg DiLisi, Education and School Psychology
November 10, 2015, marked the 40th anniversary of the sinking of the S. S. Edmund Fitzgerald, a Great Lakes bulk cargo freighter that suddenly and mysteriously sank during a severe winter storm on Lake Superior. A year after the sinking, Canadian folksinger Gordon Lightfoot wrote and recorded the ballad “The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald.” The song became an international hit that made the event the most well-known and controversial shipping disaster on the Great Lakes. The purpose of this presentation is to commemorate the anniversary of this tragedy by bringing it to the attention of a new generation of students, namely those enrolled in our undergraduate courses. Since most of our students were not yet born when the ship sank, we first establish a historical context for them by providing detailed information about the ship’s final voyage and wreckage site. We then focus on “rogue waves” and the principle of superposition to produce a simple simulation of the conditions that might have resulted in the giant freighter’s sudden sinking.

C.2. Understanding Public Perceptions of U.S. Immigration Policy and Recommendations For Improving Immigration Policy
Grace Donnelly, Undergraduate
The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act is the primary document that has informed US Immigration Policy. In 2016 there are three primary avenues through which people can apply to become legal permanent residents within the United States. Those who qualify to apply as Employment Based Immigration Visa, Family Based Immigration Visa, and Refugee and Asylum seekers may apply to become a legal permanent resident. This paper explores current US Immigration Policy and the impact of public perception of immigration. Additionally it will bring in perspectives from Cleveland based experts on immigration and refugee services.

TUESDAY, APRIL 12, 2016: 3:30-4:45 PM

TUE 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session D
PANEL: Peacebuilding in Northern Ireland
Moderator: Dr. Philip Metres, Englilsh
Dolan Science Center, A202
(1) Kateri Dillon: “Bobby Sands and Baroness May Blood: The Role of Storytelling in Northern Ireland”
(2) Emily Tusick: “Stories of Northern Ireland: The Website”
(3) Kevin Kussmaul: “The Role of Religion in Peacebuilding in Northern Ireland”
(4) Tyler Moran: “The Economics of Conflict in Northern Ireland”
(5) Jill Sullivan: “Seamus Heaney and the Role of the Arts in Peacebuilding”

“Peacebuilding in Northern Ireland,” an outgrowth of the course on Irish literature and Film and the two-week immersion to Northern Ireland in 2015, will explore a variety of sites for and methods of peacebuilding. The course focused on exploring both literature and film and how these two mediums can serve as platforms to explore what John Paul Lederach calls the “moral imagination.” The moral imagination “requires the capacity to imagine ourselves in a web of relationships that includes our enemies… and the acceptance of the inherent risk of stepping into the mystery of the unknown that lies beyond the far too familiar landscape of violence.” Our panelists will demonstrate how religious communities, economic interests, authors, and story-tellers have played substantive roles in peacebuilding and conflict transformation in Northern Ireland, since the end of the Troubles in 1998. Time permitting, the panel and others will also reflect on the lessons learned.

D.1. Bobby Sands and Baroness May Blood: The Role of Storytelling in Northern Ireland
Kateri Dillon, Undergraduate; Dr. Philip Metres, Faculty Advisor, English
This presentation explores the role of story-telling during the Troubles of Northern Ireland and subsequent peace-building process, with particular focus on two stories I encountered during my trip to Northern Ireland last spring. I will briefly examine the writing of Bobby Sands, an iconic Nationalist military leader, poet, and hunger striker. I will reflect on Sands’ story while keeping in mind my experience of meeting with two former IRA leaders who had known him personally, and who spoke of his line “the laughter of our children will be our revenge” as defining of his character. I will then focus on the story of Baroness May Blood, a working-class Protestant who lived through the Troubles, became an active member of a trade union and a founder of the Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition, uniting women across political and religious divides. These stories from opposing sides reveal similar hopes for a more just future.

D.2. Stories of Northern Ireland: The Website
Emily Tusick, Undergraduate, Dr. Philip Metres, Advisor, English
“Stories of Northern Ireland”—a website with audio files of stories collected by Emily Tusick and Karly Kovac—presents and explores how Northern Irish people told their stories of peace and conflict resolution. While in Northern Ireland, we met with an array of people—from persons who lived during the time of guerilla warfare, men and women from either sides of the conflict, and organizations trying to bring peace—each having their own unique story to tell on how they view their world. These powerful testimonies enabled a deeper understanding into the intricacies of resolving conflict. Talking with these individuals and allowing them to tell their stories in a space of understanding, peace and solidarity for one another were able to be created in those moments.

D.3. The Role of Religion in Peacebuilding in Northern Ireland
Kevin Kussmaul, Undergraduate; Dr. Philip Metres, Advisor, English
The Northern Ireland Conflict is often described as a religious conflict, but one of the ways the peace process succeeded was through religious leaders and religious communities. Leaders like Fr. Alec Reid were able to bring extremist groups to the negotiation table to move forward in a peaceful manner. After the Good Friday Accords in 1998, religious leaders have remained stalwarts of peacebuilding. During my time in Belfast I met a Protestant, Bill Shaw, who uses his community center to bring people of all faiths together. One example of Shaw’s work is youth groups where young people from different backgrounds meet weekly to engage in various sporting activities. These youth groups remain together from young ages through their teenage years. Though tension and distrust remain, religion has become one big piece to the puzzle that is reconciliation in Northern Ireland.

D.4. The Economics of Conflict in Northern Ireland
Tyler Moran, Undergraduate; Dr. Philip Metres, Advisor, English
Dating back hundreds of years, to the early 19th century, Irish Catholics and Protestants have been battling each other for land, rights, and a voice. Often this has led to massive outbreaks of violence and conflict that have shaped the relationship between these two cultures for centuries. My paper dives into the economical roots of this conflict, and how poverty and economic oppression has aided in the perpetuation of this violence well into present times.

D.5. Seamus Heaney and the Role of the Arts in Peacebuilding
Jill Sullivan, Undergraduate; Dr. Philip Metres, Advisor, English
Seamus Heaney explored the conflict in Northern Ireland poetically, using words to portray his emotions and experience instead of violence. Through traveling to Northern Ireland I learned the importance of having creative outlets in places of conflict. I will talk about examples such as the 174 Trust, an inclusive and non-threatening environment, which offered many creative programs such as music and art. Even on the streets of Derry/Londonderry, I observed families painting on building walls as a sense of self-expression and communication. My main takeaway from the class and trip was that open communication is key to resolution of conflict. In order to have open communication one needs to feel safe. Safety can come through creative outlets such as writing, art, music, and even athletics.

TUE 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session E
PANEL: Women’s Stories – Feminist Critiques of Personal Accounts, a Fairy Tale and a Classic Novel
Moderator: Dr. Brent Brossmann, Russert Department of Communications & Theatre Arts
Dolan Science Center, A203
(1) Elizabeth Golias: “Ethics in Dove’s “Choose Beautiful” Campaign”
(2) Shannon Kinnear: “If the Shoe Fits: A Feminist Cinderella Story”
(3) Ellen Liebenguth: “The Persuasion of Jane Austen’s Persuasion

The panel consists of three analyses of feminist implications of stories of, and frequently by, women. Golias critiques the ethics of Dove’s “Choose Beautiful” campaign which presented women wishing to enter their building with two choices – two self-describe as beautiful or average. The analysis examines both the creation of the campaign and many of the rationales women provided for their choices while asking a pertinent question – regardless of intent, was the imposition of that choice rhetorically ethical? Kinnear analyzes the Brothers Grimm fairy tale Cinderella, frequently labeled as one of many anti-feminist princess stories, to argue that Cinderella is actually a feminist champion. The feminist critique is also applied to several other characters within the fairy tale. Liebenguth examines the feminist implications of the choices of Anne Elliot, the protagonist of Austen’s Persuasion. The analysis cautions against blanket assessments of whether Anne was a feminist, arguing instead for a need to assess the depiction of Elliot’s choices in context of the period.

TUE 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session F
Individual Paper Session
Moderator: Dr. Margaret Farrar, Dean, College of Arts & Sciences
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room
(1) Derek Jenkins: “The Fair Trade Movement and the Domestic Coffee Industry”
(2) Dr. Brian Saxton: “Toward a theory of supply-side mobility constraint: Assessing value creation and value capture”
(3) Dr. Simran Kahai: “Model for Determinants of Corruption”

F.1. The Fair Trade Movement and the Domestic Coffee Industry
Derek Jenkins, Undergraduate
This paper will be presenting a quantitative analysis on the effect the fair trade movement has on the price of coffee exports from Brazil. The United States receives roughly 40 percent of its coffee from Brazil. Fair Trade is an organization that focuses on improving conditions for farmers in impoverished countries to help imporve all other stakeholders in the community. While Coffee is the largest export of Brazil, it has been the focus of the Fair Trade movement orginizations in Brazil. Fair Trade has been succesful in its intended goals of rasing farmer wages, and also increasing producer surplus for farmers in the market. However my research will focus on the negative consequences of fair trade and how it effects the rest of the coffee market, specifically the positive relationship its implementation has on the domestic price of coffee.

F.2. Toward a theory of supply-side mobility constraint: Assessing value creation and value capture
*Brian Saxton, Visiting Assistant Professor of Management; Alison M. Dachner, Assistant Professor of Management
The human capital literature has generally cited firm-specificity as the determining factor for value capture. However, in recent years, several scholars have challenged this consensus and called for a more nuanced analysis of value creation and capture issues. In particular, they have noted that the traditional framework depends on well-functioning markets for human capital, and in particular, no constraints on employee mobility. However, the human resources literature has identified a variety of reasons why employees may not wish to leave their current organizations, even if they might be better compensated elsewhere. In this study, we use insights from both human resources and human capital literatures to put forward a theory of value creation and value capture from supply-side mobility constraints.

F.3. Model for Determinants of Corruption
Dr. Simran Kahai, Economics & Finance
This paper serves to identify the factors that are important in determining the extent of corruption. This study describes the nature and modes of corruption. Some countries have been able to grow fast in spite of being ranked among the most corrupt countries. Many economists argue that corruption is a serious impediment to firms’ growth and development. This study attempts to understand what context and type of corruption matters when it comes to the success of businesses. As a case study, this research will choose Myanmar, a country that ranks 147/168 on the Corruption Perception Index, to evaluate in terms of corruption and economic prosperity.

TUESDAY, APRIL 12, 2016: 5:00-6:15 PM

TUE 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session G
PANEL: Violence in Schools: What Can Professional School Counselors Do?
Moderator: Dr. Nancy Taylor, Counseling
Dolan Science Center, A202

Schools have long had a history of preparing for disasters such as fire, floods, and tornados. More recently, in the last thirty years school shootings have necessitated the development of procedures to respond to acts of violence. Typically, the words school and violence prompt the thought of guns. However, there are other aspects of violence that cause trouble in the lives of students. This paper considers several facets of violence that children and teens face from bullying, domestic disputes at home between parents, sibling abuse, teen dating violence, suicide, as well as school shootings. Besides collaborating on the development of crisis response plans, school counselors can advocate for the implementation of programming to develop protective factors in children and teens. A model will be presented for an interactive discussion with the audience.

TUE 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session H
PANEL: A Program Evaluation of Youth Services for Lutheran Metropolitan Ministry
Moderator: Dr. Penny Harris, Sociology & Criminology
Dolan Science Center, A203
Undergraduate students: Oriana Brenzo, Hope Camerino, Adam Chaney, Maria Mangione, Tyra Sandler, Vinh Trinh, Emily Tusick, Natalie Wetzel, and Mohamed Yugo

In the fall of 2015, students in an advanced sociology class on poverty and welfare conducted an evaluation of two of Lutheran Metropolitan Ministry’s Youth Services: The After School Prevention Resources (ASPR) and the Next Step. Qualitative interviews with 17 youth, 12 from the ASPR and 5 from the Next Step Program, were conducted then later analyzed for common themes. Youth from the Next Step Program were found to be provided with strong support from the staff, opportunities for personal growth, which produced feelings of hope for a better future. One major recommendation from the program participants was the need of more caseworkers. For ASPR, it was concluded that the program provided a safe haven to the youth, which fostered positive social, communication, and practical skills. The program members also had suggestions for program improvement, such as longer hours, a better basketball court and addition of diverse programs or activities.

TUE 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session I
SPEAKER PRESENTATION: Journey to Ararat
Moderator: Dr. Jim Krukones, History
Pietro Shakarian, Alumnus
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room

In February 1828, the Russian Empire annexed the historical Armenian province of Erivan (Yerevan) from Persia. The province included Mount Ararat, a symbol of Armenian national and spiritual identity, said to be the resting place of Noah’s Ark. The mountain had never before been scaled in recorded history. Explorer Friedrich Parrot of the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia) decided to take on the challenge of climbing Ararat. In 1829, he traveled to the Caucasus with an expeditionary team. Accompanied by Armenian writer Khachatur Abovian, he eventually reached the summit of the mountain. His memoirs of the expedition, “Journey to Ararat”, were later published in both German and English. This presentation will highlight the research behind the new republication of the English edition of Parrot’s book by JCU alumnus Pietro Shakarian. This new edition includes a critical introduction, new maps, and historical documents from Estonia and Armenia regarding Parrot’s expedition.

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 13, 2016: 2:00-3:15 PM

WED 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session J
PANEL: Honors Panel
Moderator: Dr. Angie Jones, Honors Program
Dolan Science Center, A202
(1) Halle Herringshaw: “Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research vs. Alternative Stem Cell Research: Is there a compromise?”
(2) Tyler Nellis: “Economic Representation in Democracy”
(3) Edward Zgrabik: “Evaluating the Inevitable: Chinese Cars in the United States”
(4) Katelyn DeBaun: “Content, Interaction and Media Portrayal of Violence against African Americans in Mainstream and Citizen Journalism”

J.1. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research vs. Alternative Stem Cell Research: Is there a compromise?
Halle Herringshaw, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Dr. Paul Lauritzen, Professor, Theology and Religious Studies
Science has approached research on human stem cells from almost every angle. In this academic review, the alternative methods science has applied to human embryonic stem cell research and stem cell based therapies are analyzed, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, somatic cell nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells, and adult stem cells. The underlying reasons that science/medicine and ethics still disagree on embryonic stem cell use are explored. By identifying the progress and success of alternative methods and ethical concerns that are brought forth with these methods, a clear analysis is given of where science and medicine are at with stem cell research and stem cell based therapies. This review suggests that induced pluripotent stem cells provide the least amount of ethical issues with the most promising evidence of successful patient-specific cell therapies.

J.2. Economic Representation in Democracy
Tyler Nellis, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Dr. Mindy Peden, Associate Professor, Political Science
Previous political theorists have focused on the need for representation based on cultural, ethnic, or gender identity in politics. However, it seems that a gap exists in regards to the recognition of economic difference. Economic difference may be useful by both incorporating other identities in politics and providing a common ground from which policy can be made and advocated for by economic groups. This paper focuses on the need for economic representation within politics and combines this type of identity with the logic of political heuristics.

J.3. Evaluating the Inevitable: Chinese Cars in the United States
Edward Zgrabik, Undergraduate, Honors Program
China has recently surpassed the United States as the world’s largest market for automobiles and for over a decade, many automakers have expressed concerned over the possibility of inexpensive Chinese cars becoming widely available in the United States. As consolidation and globalization have become major trends among the largest manufacturing industries, it is increasingly important that automobile manufacturers compete on an international scale; thus the potential for Chinese businesses to begin large scale operations in North America remains high. The domestic Chinese market is home to a multitude of large private and state-owned corporations that compete with multinational manufacturers such as Ford Motor Company and Toyota. Despite this, Chinese manufacturers face issues such as build quality, strict regulation, and distrust of nondomestic brands that hinder potential for expansion. This paper describes some of the obstacles faced by Chinese carmakers, and seeks to present potential strategies for said companies to enter and provide an effective value proposition in the United States’ market.

J.4. Content, Interaction and Media Portrayal of Violence against African Americans in Mainstream and Citizen Journalism
Katelyn DeBaun, Undergraduate, Honors Program
This content analysis centers on a comparison of reporting content between mainstream print media and citizen journalism, pertaining to high-publicity deaths of African American individuals caused by police officers. The deaths focused upon in this paper include Eric Garner in Staten Island, New York; Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri; Tamir Rice in Cleveland, Ohio; and Freddie Gray in Baltimore, Maryland. For the purposes of this paper, the mainstream print outlets examined are The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal and USA Today. Advanced Twitter searches using the Topsy search engine have been utilized to document citizen journalism reports. Through constructed week sampling and the examination of 51 articles and 1302 tweets, it was found that mainstream media generally reports on incidents before citizen journalists, and that the interaction between citizen journalists using Twitter and the mainstream media is extremely sparse.

WED 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session K
PANEL: Scenes from the Next Big TV Shows
Moderators: Dr. Sharon Kaye, Philosophy and Dr. Tom Pace, English
Dolan Science Center, A203

Like a collective subconscious, pop culture forms a common fabric between us, rarely in focus, yet driving our self-image and our ambitions. By turning our attention to the ideas and values conveyed through television, movies, and advertising, we make discoveries about ourselves—who we are, and who we can become. Students in the new linked courses PL398B “Philosophy and Pop Culture” and EN 299 “Introduction to Popular Culture” have learned how to view pop culture through the most powerful and influential critical lenses and how to express their own deepest convictions through the pop culture vernacular. In this panel, each of five groups presents a five minute scene from the “The Next Big TV Show” as they conceive it.

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 13, 2016: 3:30-4:45 PM

WED 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session M
PANEL: New Beginnings – Rhetorical Analyses of Change
Moderator: Dr. Brent Brossmann, Russert Department of Communications & Theatre Arts
Dolan Science Center, A202
(1) Thomas Roth: “Apologia in LeBron James’ Homecoming Letter to Cleveland”
(2) Madeline Smanik: “A Rhetorical Criticism of Barack Obama’s 2009 Inaugural Address”
(3) Madison Suvak: “The Rebranding of Feminism for Today’s Generation”

The panel consists of three analyses of the rhetoric of change. Roth examines how LeBron James reinvented himself rhetorically to secure a warm welcome for his return to Northeast Ohio. Smanik critiques Obama’s initial inaugural in light of his mantra of Hope and Change, arguing that his decision to comply closely with traditional generic constraints of inaugurals suggested conformity with the anticipated role of the President as opposed to change. Suvak analyzes Emma Watson’s Address to the United Nations as a vehicle for rebranding feminism. Suvak argues that rather than continuing the lines of argument that have bolstered feminism for decades, the choice of Watson and her approach to the HeForShe Campaign is designed to rebrand feminism in a more positive light for today’s young men and women.

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 13, 2016: 5:00-6:15 PM

WED 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session P
PANEL: Shining a Spotlight on Contemporary Social Issues: Sociology Faculty Discuss their Research
Moderator: Dr. Susan Long, Sociology & Criminology
Dolan Science Center, A202
(1) Dr. Medora Barnes and Dr.Kimberly B. Dugan (Eastern Connecticut State University): “‘Sister Moms’ and the World of Donor Kinship Networks”
(2) Dr. Gassan Abess: “Analyzing Citizens’ Reported Levels of Confidence in the Police: A Cross-National Study of Public Attitudes Toward the Police in the United States and South Korea”
(3) Dr. Richard Clark and Dr. Gloria Vaquera: “Gendered Changes in White University Student’s Attitudes on Drug Policy in the United States : The impact of reading Alexander’s The New Jim Crow”
(4) Dr. Penny Harris: “An Intergenerational Choir: Combating the Stigma of Alzheimer’s disease and Building Connections with College Students and People Living with Dementia and Their Family Members”

From donor kinship networks, to citizens’ confidence in their police, to students’ attitudes toward U.S. drug policy, to Alzheimer’s disease stigma, a panel of sociology and criminology professors will discuss their latest research on very timely issues. Dr. Barnes focuses on a new form of family created using anonymous sperm donors and the families’ relationships. Dr. Abess discusses results from a cross –national study examining citizens’ level of confidence in the police in the United States and South Korea. Drs. Clark and Vaquera examine the impact of reading a book on changing the attitudes of students toward U.S. drug policy.

P.1. “Sister Moms” and the World of Donor Kinship Networks
Dr. Medora Barnes, Sociology & Criminology and Dr. Kimberly B. Dugan (Eastern Connecticut State University)
It’s a brave new world for families created using anonymous donors. With help of the infertility industry, connections between strangers who bear children from the same donor are now possible. This research examines the relationships between “sister moms” in donor sibling networks. Sister moms are those women who have conceived children by the same unknown sperm donor. This paper examines the reasons why some mothers form relationships with fellow sister moms and their children’s donor kin through participation in online groups, phone calls, and face-to-face activities. The data is drawn from in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 mothers (both lesbian and heterosexual) from across the United States. Findings examine the importance of biology in defining family, the role of family size, and the mother’s perceptions of the benefits and pitfalls to participation for herself and her children.

P.2. Analyzing Citizens’ Reported Levels of Confidence in the Police: A Cross-National Study of Public Attitudes Toward the Police in the United States and South Korea
Dr. Gassan Abess, Sociology & Criminology
Comparative police research has largely been based on qualitative or participatory techniques. The present study utilizes quantitative data collected from America and South Korea in 2005 to test the hypothesis that American citizens have higher levels of confidence in the police than their South Korean counterparts. The study further hypothesizes that citizens’ confidence in institutions such as the court and the government will influence levels of confidence in the police. Results obtained offered support for the stated hypotheses.

P.3. Gendered Changes in White University Student’s Attitudes on Drug Policy in the United States: The impact of reading Alexander’s “The New Jim Crow”
Dr. Richard Clark and Dr. Gloria Vaquera, Sociology & Criminology
Using a quasi-experimental design to test the “Marshall Hypothesis,” this paper investigates the effects of reading Alexander’s “The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration and the Age of Colorblindness” on student attitudes on drug policies in America. One hundred and thirty-two undergraduate students at a predominantly-white Midwest university participated in the study. The test subjects, who were assigned the book as part of a Criminology course, received both a pre- and post-test, while a control group, that did not read the book, was also surveyed on their attitudes on drug policies. Findings offer support for the Marshall Hypothesis, that an informed constituency would conclude that certain policies are unjust. White students, in general, showed significant changes on attitudes on drug policies after reading the book. However, disaggregating White students by gender shows that White women, more than White men, are more convinced by Alexander’s arguments that current drug policies unfairly target communities of color.

P.4. An Intergenerational Choir: Combating the Stigma of Alzheimer’s dDsease and Building Connections with College Students and People Living with Dementia and Their Family Members
Dr. Penny Harris, Sociology & Criminology
This study discusses a unique partnership between two very different populations: undergraduate college students and people with early stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their family members brought together to form an intergenerational choir to reduce Alzheimer’s stigma in college students. However, this intergenerational choir did more than that, it created a “community” amongst all the choir members. This qualitative study follows 3 cohorts of college students (N= 45) and 3 cohorts of people with dementia and their family members (N=30). Data were gathered for each cohort through semi-structured open-ended questions on attitudes about dementia and experiences in the choir, collected at three points over 9 weeks of rehearsals every spring for 3 years. Results across all 3 cohorts show a decrease in negative attitudes about AD, expanded understanding about the lived experience of AD, and the development of meaningful bonds across generations, abilities, and disabilities.

WED 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session Q
PANEL: White Culture
Moderator: Dr. Thea Ford, Education
Dolan Science Center, A203

As envisioned, this panel will consist of past and present students enrolled in ED 350/453, Multicultural Education.

WED 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session R
Individual Paper Session
Moderator: Dr. Deniz Durmus, Philosophy
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room
(1) Dr. Nathan Gehlert: “Impacts of Service Learning on Civic Attitudes and Skills” (with student participants)
(2) Dr. Martha Pereszlenyi-Pinter: “On Your Toes in Tutus and Tights! ‘Dancing with the [French] Stars,’ from Louis XIV to Today”

R.1. Impacts of Service Learning on Civic Attitudes and Skills
Dr. Nathan Gehlert, Counseling
A growing trend in higher education has been the adoption of formal models of student immersion in community service experiences designed to enhance student participation and learning outcomes. This pedagogical model, called service-learning, is being used increasingly at colleges and universities in the United States. In this paper, we present findings from a quasi-experimental study that was conducted using 2014 data from the First Year Seminar at John Carroll. Data from students in service learning and non-service learning sections of the course were analyzed to investigate impacts of the service learning experience on students’ perception of their civic attitudes and skills. Participation in service learning was found to relate to increases in Social Justice Attitudes, while students not participating in service reported increases in Interpersonal and Problem Solving Skills. These findings are discussed and implications for the field of higher education are offered.

R.2. On Your Toes in Tutus and Tights! ‘Dancing with the [French] Stars,’ from Louis XIV to Today
Dr. Martha Pereszlenyi-Pinter, Classical & Modern Languages & Cultures
The dance form of “ballet” originated in 15th century Italy, and later flourished in 17th century France during the time of Louis XIV. Over the centuries, dance moved out of the court and into music halls and venues where the audience would often participate. When the “can-can” first appeared in Paris around 1830, it was a dance for couples. The high-kicks earned its name, which literally means “scandal” and occasionally groups of men performing the “can-can” would be arrested. “Bal-musettes” were usually performed in small music venues, and were characterized by fast, small steps, and later were influenced by the waltz, polka, and “apache” (a highly dramatic dance associated in popular culture with Parisian street culture at the beginning of the 20th century). This presentation will tour the ages and demonstrate how “court culture” evolved into “popular culture” accessible to the masses today.

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 13, 2016: 6:30-7:45 PM

WED 6:30-7:45 p.m. Special Event
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room
Early College Panel Session
Moderator: Dr. Mark Storz, Education and School Psychology
(1) Tamia Jackson: “The Correlation between Baby Blues and the Severity of Postpartum Depression”
(2) Angelique Hale: “The Impact that Sleep Deprivation has on Implicit and Explicit Memory”
(3) Yidiayah S. Box: “The Correlation between Emotional Disorders and Teen Obesity”

These three students have been selected by Early College faculty at Cleveland Heights University Heights High School as exemplary members of the sophomore class Gateway Project. These students are in their sophomore year of high school and are on track to take courses at John Carroll University in their Junior Year. These students have created original research projects and are working with an Early College Faculty Mentor to assist them in their efforts. They have been selected from a group of their peers to represent the school in this panel.

(1) The Correlation between Baby Blues and the Severity of Postpartum Depression
Tamia Jackson, Early College Program
The purpose of this research is to find the correlation between the treatment of baby blues and the severity of postpartum depression. Maternal depression is a common condition after childbirth. Early onset, which is the “baby blues”, is a mild form of this disease. A mother could expect this disorder to be short term and manageable. Late onset, which is the severe form, lasts longer and has harsher side effects. When the two forms of depression are ignored, it is difficult for the mother to recover. Prompt diagnosis is critical as soon as symptoms are exhibited. Social support and medical attention are recommended treatments that could stop the progression of postpartum. Parenthood should be a beautiful time instead of a depressing experience for a mother.

(2) The Impact that Sleep Deprivation has on Implicit and Explicit Memory
Angelique Hale, Early College Program
The purpose of this study is to examine how sleep deprivation affects teens’ explicit and implicit memory. Individuals who are sleep deprived can suffer from a decline in their overall physical, mental, and behavioral state. Sleep deprivation affects the conscious effort to recall or recognize information and to perform tasks that require conscious awareness (explicit memory). It also affects the brain’s ability to perform habitual tasks that do not need conscious awareness (implicit memory). The data that was collected revealed how sleep deprivation affected the brain’s ability to perform and focus on memory tasks that require explicit and implicit memory. The majority of the participants were considered sleep deprived because they achieved less than seven hours of sleep. Insufficient sleep impacted their ability to recall earlier events which required their explicit memory and the conscious effort needed to perform implicit tasks. Young people need to realize that insufficient sleep can impair their ability to perform at an optimal level.

(3) The Correlation between Emotional Disorders and Teen Obesity
Yidiayah S. Box, Early College Program
Obesity is a deadly epidemic in America and can lead to the development of emotional disorders in some overweight teenagers. The objective of this research is to identify the extent to which emotional disorders affect overweight children. Such emotional disorders include depression, anxiety, and behavioral disorders. The target group of this study consists of students in grades nine through twelve with the intention of identifying those with emotional disorders. The survey will explore the effect that bullying and body shaming have on the development of emotional disorders. This research will also examine the connection between emotional disorders and teenage obesity. When teens do not fit into society’s ideal image, frustration and self-consciousness can lead to emotional disorders.

THURSDAY, APRIL 14, 2016: 2:00-3:15 PM

THU 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session S
Individual Paper Session
Moderator: Dr. Medora Barnes, Sociology & Criminology
Dolan Science Center, A202
(1) Matthew Hribar: “The Expression of Love Within Undergraduates”
(2) Emily Uterhark: “Intertwined: Vera Brittain’s approach to feminism and pacifism”

S.1. The Expression of Love Within Undergraduates
*Matthew Hribar, Undergraduate; Dr. Medora Barnes, Associate Professor, Sociology & Criminology
This research, conducted in the fall of 2015, analyzes 123 undergraduates’ placement on the Love Attitudes Scale (LAS) and explores expressions of love. It examined how gender, age, and LAS style influences expressions and beliefs about love. Findings indicated that in younger students were more likely to be ‘selfless’ and not as ‘strategic’. Older undergraduates showed lower levels of “selfless” love and higher levels of “strategic” or “game-playing” love. Gender differences were also present. Females were more likely to be friendship-orientated and possessive, while males were more likely to be strategic, practical, and selfless in their love style (although not all these were statistically significant). In addition, open-ended question were analyzed to examine when students feel it is appropriate and comfortable to say “I love you” to a romantic partner. The most frequent themes in these responses surrounded perceptions of emotions and time.

S.2. Intertwined: Vera Brittain’s approach to feminism and pacifism
Emily Uterhark, Undergraduate
Vera Brittain lived in a world full of change and conflict, not unlike ours today. She survived her work as a VAD nurse during the First World War, only to lose those closest to her. These experiences, along with her upbringing sent her down a path of great pacifism. Brittain from the end of World War 1 to the end of her life worked for the causes of feminism and pacifism, which were both movements extremely close to her heart. However, Vera Brittain did not view these two movements as two separate entities, but rather as two movements forever intertwined. These intertwined movements caused Brittain to suffer criticism from those on either side of it, but through it all Brittain continued to stay true to her claims never wavering from what she wished the world to be.

THU 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session T
PANEL: Case Studies: Religion, Terrorism, and Culture Wars, Panel 1 of 2
Moderator: Michele Stopera Freyhauf, Theology & Religious Studies
Dolan Science Center, A203

THURSDAY, APRIL 14, 2016: 3:30-4:45 PM

THU 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session V
Individual Paper Session
Moderator: TBA
Dolan Science Center, A202
(1) Alexya Perez: “Potential Effects for Establishing a Common Monetary Union between CARICOM”
(2) Dr. Tamba Nlandu: “On the Concept of Fair Competition in Today’s European Soccer Leagues”
(3) Robert Haas: “Shirley Jackson’s ‘The Tooth’: Dentistry as Horror, the Imagination as a Shield”

V.1. Potential Effects for Establishing a Common Monetary Union between CARICOM
Alexya Perez, Undergraduate

V.2. On the Concept of Fair Competition in Today’s European Soccer Leagues
Dr. Tamba Nlandu, Philosophy
The notion of competition depicted in sport literature appears to be inconsistent with the goals of current European soccer competitions. This paper aims at refuting the view that professional soccer only requires some basic equality of chances beyond the differences in skills and strategy. It also aims at shedding some light on some misconceptions inherent in such a view. Hence, we shall call for both genuine legal and ethical reforms, since professional soccer competition requires a notion of equality as both a goal and a right. In fact, such a view entails that the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and its national and local governing bodies ought to adopt and promote a concept of competition based upon genuine legal and ethical fairness similar to the one advocated by such American sport governing bodies as the National Football League, National Basketball Association, and Major League Soccer.

V.3. Shirley Jackson’s ‘The Tooth’: Dentistry as Horror, the Imagination as a Shield
Robert Haas, Alumnus
On her way to a dreaded dental appointment to have an aching tooth pulled, Clara Spencer meets a solicitous stranger, Jim, and by the end of the story runs off with him, in many interpretations to perdition. But since 1) Shirley Jackson (who herself had much dental work and hated it) has suffered from typecasting as a horror writer, 2) dental gas anesthesia protocols of the time as Clara is anticipating could lead to sexual hallucinations, and 3) contemporary literature celebrated escapist fantasy (e.g., the invisible giant rabbit in Harvey), this talk proposes instead that Jim is Clara’s own imaginative, comforting, therapeutic creation. Literature and Medicine 33, no. 1 (Spring 2015) 132-156

THU 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session W
PANEL: Case Studies: Religion, Terrorism, and Culture Wars, Panel 2 of 2
Moderator: Michele Stopera Freyhauf, Theology & Religious Studies
Dolan Science Center, A203

THU 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session X
PANEL: Putting Creativity into Your Course
Moderator: Dr. Jackie Schmidt, Russert Department of Communications & Theatre Arts, Director of the Entrepreneurship Minor, Project Manager of the Burton D. Morgan Grant
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room
Panelists: Keith Nagy, Drs. Alison Dachner, Pamela Mason, Tom Bonda, Nancy Taylor, Jerry Weinstein

Participants in the Burton D. Morgan Foundation Creativity and Entrepreneurship Learning Community will present and explain creativity exercises they have developed for use in their courses. Materials will be available.

THURSDAY, APRIL 14, 2016: 5:00-6:15 PM

THU 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session Y
PANEL: Senior Spotlight: Arrupe Scholars Program
Moderator: Dr. Malia McAndrew, History, and Arrupe Director
Dolan Science Center, A202
Panelists: Sarah Spangenburg, Daniel Mascio, Emily Mordini, Patrick Vecellio

THU 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session Z
PANEL: No Place like Home for the Anglo-Saxons
Moderator: Dr. Emily Butler, English
Dolan Science Center, A203
(1) Kathrine Statham: “Meadhall of the Mind: The Importance of the Hall and Community in Anglo-Saxon England”
(2) Christopher Kane: “Redeeming the Old English Daniel”
(3) Maria Clare McKeating: “A Reading of Alcuin’s ‘O Mea Cella’”
(4) Darcy Egan: “‘Floating spirits’ – The Physical/Spiritual Crux of The Wanderer (ll. 45-72)”

A common thread running through much of Anglo-Saxon literature is a sense of loss or nostalgia. Drawing on both vernacular and Latin texts, these papers explore loyalty and the rootedness of having a place in a home or community, or the devastation that can follow the loss of these emotional moorings. These papers also highlight the ways that the Classical and Biblical traditions continued to shape medieval literary production, as authors played with and nudged these traditions in new directions. Ranging through familiar Old English texts like Beowulf and the elegiac The Wanderer through the Biblically-based Daniel and the lesser-known Anglo-Latin poetry of Alcuin, this panel shows off the vibrant literary world of the Anglo-Saxons.

Z.1 Meadhall of the Mind: The Importance of the Hall and Community in Anglo-Saxon England
Kathrine Statham, Undergraduate
The majority of Old English literary text is scattered with subtle, yet important, references to the necessity of the mead-hall. The mead-hall not only served as a gathering place for food and drink, but it also provided a sense of community and belonging to Anglo-Saxon people. Their custom of gathering in the hall was vital to a community that valued loyalty to kinship and to the Lord of the hall above all else. As these communities were tight-knit, acceptance of an outsider into the mead-hall was nearly impossible. Because of these elements of Anglo-Saxon life, exile from the mead-hall was a fate worse than death itself. This paper aims to examine the importance of the mead-hall, both on the mind of one who is exiled, and on those who still belong.

Z.2 Redeeming the Old English Daniel
Christopher Kane, Graduate Student
The Old English poem Daniel is often relegated to second class status compared to its fellow Junius manuscript pieces, Genesis and Exodus. Even in the limited realm of extant medieval English works, Daniel remains on the fringes of scholarship due to a perceived lack of artistic achievement and an irregular, erratic multipart structure, which features a pair of interruptive “Song” interjections. Daniel, however, warrants renewed scholarship for its historical merits and a closer investigation of this abnormal poetic construction. Daniel, like the other Junius 11 works, is a successful construction of Biblical epic and achieves the simultaneous aims of general biblical loyalty and appeal to the secular audience of medieval English listeners. Furthermore, its structure is not necessarily a weakness, but a unique aspect that presents the reader with a glimpse of how classical and theological education could together inform the writing of this period.

Z.3. A Reading of Alcuin’s ‘O Mea Cella
Maria Clare McKeating, Undergraduate
This poem offers insight into a moment in the private life of Alcuin, the leading scholar of the court of Charlemagne. While Alcuin’s letters and treatises are valued for giving historical glimpses into life at Aachen, “O Mea Cella” is a more personal poem, simply and poignantly addressed to a beloved place. Composed in the Anglo-Latin which was the language of scholarship in this period, “O Mea Cella” combines the ancient custom of elegiac poetry with a new perspective on life and loss from one of the greatest scholars of the Carolingian Renaissance.

Z.4. ‘Floating spirits’ – The Physical/Spiritual Crux of The Wanderer (ll. 45-72)
Darcy Egan, Graduate Student
By examining The Wanderer closely, particularly through translation, I was able to tease out significant critical threads. Throughout the poem, the physical and spiritual meet; the protagonist’s spiritual anguish appears alongside physical torment in exile. Although it would make sense to read these scenes as metaphorical, in translating I was able to play upon ambiguous grammatical constructs in order to demonstrate the collapsing distinction between these forms of anguish. In particular, the bathing seabirds passage promotes such a reading, as the poet allows for purposeful ambiguity. Translation forced me to consider the value of particular words, the influence of poetic meter, and any potential ambiguities. In the case of The Wanderer, the process of translation enriches my reading, as a side-by-side comparison with other translations highlights key components of the work and raises questions for further discussion.

THU 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session AA
PANEL: EC499 Presentations
Moderator: Dr. Lindsay Calkins, Economics & Finance
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room
(1) Alec Kopsick: “The Decline of Money Velocity in the U.S. Economy”
(2) Judy Mualem: “The Economics Perspective of Gene Patents: Myriad Genetics Case Study”
(3) Jordan de Bord
(4) Victoria Hume: “The Determinants of Corruption”

AA.1. The Decline of Money Velocity in the U.S. Economy
Alec Kopsick, Undergraduate

AA.2 The Economics Perspective of Gene Patents: Myriad Genetics Case Study
Judy Mualem, Undergraduate Student; Dr. Lindsay Calkins, Economics & Finance
Myriad Genetics held gene patents on BRCA1 and BRCA2, which are associated with an increased risk of ovarian and breast cancer. Myriad remained the sole distributor of BRCA genetic testing until the Supreme Court’s decision in June 2013 invalidated the patent. Gene patents allows the holder the absolute right to undertake research and development for a gene, which is a specific sequence of DNA. Gene patents are designed to protect and provide an incentive to the patentee. However, they often come at the price of hindering innovation, creating monopolies, and the absence of quality assurance in the product. The main disadvantage asserted against patents is allowing industries to operate as a monopoly. The patent system creates a monopoly since the holders are able to set price high above marginal cost. The case study will focus on policies, effect on innovation, economics outcome, and ethical dilemmas surrounding gene patents.

AA.4. The Determinants of Corruption
Victoria Hume, Undergraduate
This paper identifies the factors that are important in determining the extent of corruption. This study describes the nature and modes of corruption. Some countries have been able to grow fast in spite of being ranked among the most corrupt countries. Many economists have argued that corruption is a serious impediment to a firm’s growth and development. This study attempts to understand what context and type of corruption matters in the success of businesses.

Poster Session and Poster Competition

April 11, 2016 from 5:30 to 7:30 PM

Dolan Science Center Atrium

  • Group A: Odd numbered posters will be presented from 5:30 to 6:16 PM with the exception of Early College Students who will present as part of Group B from 6:15 to 7:30 PM.
  • Group B: Even numbered posters will be presented from 6:15 to 7:30 PM.
  • Posters entered into the Graduate and Undergraduate Poster Competition are designated by (PC) after the poster title.
  • Presenters are expected to attend the entire Poster Session but need only be present at their poster during their assigned presentation time.
  • Main presenters are denoted with an asterisk.

101. JCU Paperless: Reducing Paper Consumption and the Environment
Anthony Deleonibus and *Patrick Hackett, Undergraduates
Excessive paper consumption on campus carries an impact not only at John Carroll but within the environment in general. Using a large amount of paper directly alludes to the rampant deforestation and release of unnecessary greenhouse gases that comes with the manufacturing of paper. Global warming is another extreme concern that is associated with paper consumption due to these two factors, and the time is now to take steps to curb excessive paper consumption and its associated problems. The increased visibility and usage of electronic devices such as tablets on campus is seen to be an effective first step towards a solution. Use of devices like tablets for note-taking, completion and submission of assignments and even in-class lectures will definitively limit the amount of paper used by John Carroll students and will thus reduce our carbon footprint as a university.

102. Catholic Social Teaching as an explanation of Firm’s environmental impact: Evidence from heavy manufacturing sector (PC)
Anne Hetson, Undergraduate, Honors Program
We examined Catholic Social Teaching to identify business variables consistent with this theory. We identified top compensation (pay disparity), stock options (employee autonomy), and number of employees (primacy of labor over capitol) as factors that are consistent with Catholic Social Teaching. We then used the CSR Hub environmental scores of manufacturing firms. We chose to look at manufacturing companies because of their potential for environmental impact. We find that firms that are consistent with Catholic Social Teaching have stronger environmental practices. Specifically, our research suggests that the greater the investment in labor, measured by cost of goods sold over employees, and the smaller a firm’s top compensation, the more a firm participates in environmentally sustainable practices. Stock options were not a relevant factor when measuring a firm’s environmental sustainability, possibly due to it not being an accurate measure of employee autonomy. This research is important in academics in both business and philosophy.

103. The Benefits of Social Media to Entrepreneurs
Ariaona Clarke, Early College Program
The purpose of this research is to study social media, and its effectiveness on businesses throughout America. Social media has been a way to communicate and change the way things are done in daily businesses; it has transformed small businesses into the largest corporations operating. Having a well built brand will help companies appear more attractive to the public and also help built customer’s knowledge about the company. However, many businesses have had a major increase of sales and popularity since they have used social media to promote their business. Online promoting for business owners helps differentiate their businesses from low underground business and will also provides visibility. This research will analyze the extent to which social media engagement can help strengthen brand experience and businesses opportunities.

104. The Successes and Shortfalls of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
Brad Hopkins, Undergraduate, Honors Program
The collapse of Enron and its auditor, Arthur Andersen, in 2001 marked the greatest financial scare since the Great Depression. As a result, the public was no longer confident in the United States financial markets and the work being done by independent auditors. In order to satisfy the public and ensure that a case, such as Enron, would not happen again, Congress proposed and passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. This poster will present an analysis of the establishment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, specifically regarding its successes, shortfalls, and overall effectiveness.

105. Gifted and Talented African Americans Undermine Their Abilities
Rashawn Creer, Early College Program
Intelligent African Americans students experience peer pressure daily. They come from a culture where many of their peers have not achieved the same academic feats or they just don’t think it is “cool”. When bright African American students experience racism from their own people and discrimination from other races, this can lead to low classroom performance and even a loss of self confidence. These students also struggle with overcoming the stereotype that only white students excel academically. The underachievement of African American students sends a message to society that blacks are incompetent and not as intelligent.

106. Endless News Most Beautiful: Exploring The Visual Landscape of Journalism and Transforming The Carroll News’ Visual Identity (PC)
Thuy Le, Undergraduate, Honors Program
This project aims to explore the practice, value and impact of newspaper design and how its principles can be applied to construct a coherent visual identity for a college newspaper. The first part will examine primary and secondary sources on visual journalism, including both theoretical and visual analysis of renowned newspaper designs around the world. The second part focuses on designing a complete visual overhaul for The Carroll News. This part will include insights from current and former The Carroll News key staff members through interviews, and a survey of Communications majors who are frequently exposed to news media to gather their opinion on the current visual presentation of the publication and their inputs into the final look for the redesign.

107. The Impact of Internet Usage on High Schoolers Success
Aynia Johnson, Early College Program
This research’s purpose is to examine how internet addiction impacts the success and development of the average high school student. The child who spends an obsessive time on the computer would be expected to be academically successful. Data will be collected by surveying high school students who spend excessive amounts on the internet and comparing them to students who do not spend as much time. This will be beneficial because it can determine whether or not internet savvy is a factor and thereby increases high school student’s achievement.

108. Female Leave Policies and Their Implications for Future Generations
Jennifer El-Kadi, Undergraduate
Currently, the FMLA has been creating new absent leave policies for females and rules that help better them during their pregnancy and post pregnancy. It has been changing from state to state and year to year. Some states benefit more from the FMLA’s new rules. The main focus of my research is to see if the new FMLA rules in specific states that are more generous than others have any effect on the unemployment rate of females, the total workforce by state and wage, as well as does their education play any role in their hiring as well. With the new rules being placed for females, will it cause employers to be less likely to hire or will it not cause any difference in the workforce?

109. The Scholarly Divide Between Student Athletes and Their Antipodes
Mehki Patterson, Early College Program
Student athletes are singled out in high school as student leaders and role models. Their coaches and community have high expectations for them. Studies show that student athletes perform academically better than non athletes and that they tend to have higher graduation rates. Therefore, this research will compare student athletes and non-athletes’ study habits, motivation to succeed, homework completion, and use of free time in Cleveland Heights. The survey data will be used to compare achievements between both groups and reveal whether participation in a sport plays increases a student’s chances at excelling in high school.

110. Influence of Perceived Quality on Consumer Shopping Behavior (PC)
*Sara Martinko, Nicole Diehl, Priscilla Flores, Undergraduates
The main problem at study here is the effect of perceived quality on willingness to purchase. 108 participants (42 male and 66 female) volunteered to participate in our 2 (male/female) x 2 (clothing/household product) x 2 (high/low quality) study. Participants viewed a set of eight pictures in sets of two and rated their willingness to purchase, their perceived item quality, and their perceived item price. The pictures were a high and low quality sweatshirt, a high and low quality polo shirt, a high and low quality electric mixer, and a high and low quality tea kettle. Our independent variables were sex, type of product, and quality of product. Our dependent variable was willingness to purchase, measured on a Likert scale. Our results showed that there is a significant difference between willingness to purchase a low quality product and a high quality product.

111. The Overrepresentation and Placement of African American Students in Special Education
Lauren Pouge, Early College Program
The disproportionate placement of African American students in special education classes is indisputable. Researchers typically give more attention to children that are classified with disabilities rather than children who have been misclassified. This research will explore the factors that influence why so many African American students are placed in special education classes. Schools need to increase their awareness about the overrepresentation of Black males in special education to prevent being misclassifying them. Labelling African American students as special ed based solely upon a teacher’s inability to relate to or manage behaviors is a common oversight.

112. PARIS Rain or Shine: ‘Ombrelles , Parasols et Parapluies’ – Sunbrellas and Umbrellas as seen by French Artists and Artisans
*Brooke N. Mc Quinn, Benjamin G. Gebhardt, Catherine E. Looby, Nickencia M. Weaver, Undergraduates and Dr. Hélène N. Sanko, Classical and Modern Languages and Cultures
Rain or shine, umbrellas have inspired individuals to perfect this accessory that has become a necessity. Originally reserved as a canopy for dignitaries, it morphed into an equalizer of societies all over the world, and became quite a novelty when artisan Jean Marius perfected the folding umbrella in 1709. The presenters have researched the umbrella first as an object requiring some technological know-how for its shape, size, and strength to withstand the wind. Then, from a novelty in the markets of the 1700s, they follow the story of the “Umbrellas of Cherbourg” whose fame has increased in the recent years and which have become luxury items that are “chic but expensive.” Passionate about France, the presenters also researched and studied the works of French artists inspired by umbrellas, and whose subjects portray the mood of a person caught in the rain, or strolling on a sunny afternoon.

113. Why we should learn to speak sign language (PC)
Nickencia Weaver, Undergraduate
Being able to speak sign language is a beautiful and fun way to expend you mind. Being able to speak sign language allows us to see and appreciate the world we live in. We get to enhance our cognitive processes which includes higher abstract and creative thinking, showing cultural awareness, better problem-solving, greater cognitive flexibility, it even betters our listening abilities. Why not let your mouth have a little break and use our hands to enjoy the ability of communicating in different ways?

114. Transforming Ideas into Actions (PC)
*Martha Bill, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director, Leader Scholars Program
Too often, noteworthy thoughts merely stay within conversations. It is fairly simple to talk about what should be done. There is a great disparity between these ideas and taking the initiative to carry them out. Transformational leadership is a theory that states that individuals are inspired to act because of the actions taken by fellow leaders. After interviewing five influential individuals, they all had two aspects in common. Each of them acted on what they believed to be true and prompted a necessary change in their community. Everyone wants to be successful; however, it is those who act and take that blind leap of faith that make a difference and inspire others to do the same.

115. Transformational Leadership in the Health and Wellness Field (PC)
*Angelica Bucci, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
Transformational leaders are people who work in unison with others to create a vision that will eventually make a lasting change. For my capstone project in the Leaders Scholars Program, I have chosen to focus on researching transformational leadership and how this particular form is a catalyst for innovative change. More specifically, I look at how transformational leadership is carried out each day by five leaders in the health and wellness industry. These leaders range greatly in career paths but all work towards a common goal of promoting health and well being with every person they lead. The leaders interviewed provided insights on the field as well as advice and knowledge for aspiring leaders.

116. Examining Inspirational Leadership (PC)
Joe Ginley, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
Leadership takes on many shapes and forms. Each leader guides his or her team in a distinct way. However, there are several types of leadership. The focus of this project will be inspirational leadership, one specific type shown to be quite effective when properly utilized. Over the course of the project, I will interview several leaders from Cleveland community and beyond about key traits of an inspirational leader. The poster will show the importance of inspirational leadership and lessons that can be learned from inspirational leaders, locally and nationally.

117. JCU Graduates Setting the World on Fire through Leadership (PC)
Allison Graham, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program

118. Leadership (PC)
Katherine Hoffman, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program

119. Leading by Example
*Andrew Lesinski, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
I am interviewing leaders out in the world so I can learn how they lead. I am interested in what makes them a leader as well as why they are successful as a leader. I plan to interview leaders that lead by example, whether by title, work ethic etc. It will be exciting to find out their key to success and the reason they have become such a leader in their particular field.

120. Transformational Leadership within Diversity and Inclusion (PC)
Mercedes Lewis, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
I will explore the theory and practice of transformational leadership, which seeks to identify a needed change, and working with others to develop a blueprint for change through the inspiration of others desiring the change. I will interview five leaders in various fields that deal with diversity and inclusion diversity and inclusion. I will focus on the importance of a diverse and inclusive workplace accompanied with diverse leaders that are experienced in diversity training. I will examine the role that transformational leadership in a work setting and how it is in correlation to a diverse and inclusive environment.

121. Transformational Leadership: From Theory to Board Room
Judy Mualem, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
The theory of Transformational Leadership is applied to practical setting related to administration careers. Five Interviews with successful leaders be would provide a practical understanding of transformational leadership. Some examples of leaders include Steve Myers (Division Manager of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease Division at Case Medical Center), Alicia DePlatchett (Research Administrator for GI & Liver Disease Division at CWRU School of Medicine), and Dr. Cameron Ryba (Superintendent of Strongsville City School). The interviews will be used to provide a practical understanding and developing of leadership characteristics. Reliable sources will be used to define the theory which will be used in comparison to the interviews. The purpose of this research project is to provide a better understanding of leadership skills for a future career path using real successful leaders as case studies.

122. Transformational Leadership in the Human Resource Management Field (PC)
*Eleni Nikolakis, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
Transformational Leadership is when leaders and teammates help to develop each other through embracing new standards, empowerment, and engagement. This type of leader creates a vision and motivates their teammates to exceed goals through the 4 main elements including idealized influence, individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, and inspirational motivation. Interviews with Human Resource Management professionals and research show that transformational leadership is most commonly used and effective when an organization is going through change along with open and honest communication.

123. Leading Through Passion
Patrick O’Brien, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
Abstract not ready at this time, will be emailed to celebration@jcu.edu asap.

124. Leadership in Clinical Psychology
Sarah Ruckstuhl, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
Clinical mental health counseling is a field in psychology in which each individual professional becomes a leader. These professionals, as therapists and clinical counselors, are leaders to their patients. After the initial assessment and diagnoses, they provide insight, guidance, and support. By doing so, many leaders in this field display a self-awareness of honesty and empathy who take responsibility for the development of others. This style of leadership is closely aligned with Authentic Leadership. This poster highlights facets of authentic leadership and features interviews from key leaders surrounding my life, of whom I have either connected with directly, or are professionals and in the field themselves.

125. Leadership in Public Health
*Danielle Sharbaugh, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
Public health provides many opportunities for individuals to work as leaders in the community, in government, and on health boards. The continual progress of population health and its ties to social justice demand the need for effective leaders, as the importance of such leaders grows as public health becomes more integrated with traditional medical care. This poster highlights some of the key elements of leadership styles and goals, as described by local and national leaders in the field. An emphasis on the practical uses of the Transformational Leadership Style accompanies the information gained from conversations with public health leaders that I have interviewed.

126. Generating Plots for Ventilation Data
*Danielle Sharbaugh, Undergraduate; and Robert Patrick MD MBA, Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center; Dr. Wilmina M. Marget, Mathematics and Computer Science
Ventilators are machines that assist patients in breathing when they cannot do so on their own, such as following a surgical procedure. The ventilator blows air into the airways (which carry oxygen to the lungs) through a tube that is inserted into the windpipe; the process of inserting the tube is called intubation, and removing the tube is called extubation. Dr. Robert Patrick, from the Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, provided data of ventilation courses of Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) surgeries from October, 2010 through October, 2014. The data includes information about ventilation times of surgical patients, as well as complications that accompany surgery. A graphical representation of patients’ ventilation times and accompanying surgical complications was created using the statistical program R. Furthermore, a standardized function in R was created to be used with future data sets of this type.

127. Transformational Leadership (PC)
Brooke Weber, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
I have interviewed 5 people who exemplify how leadership can transform based on different situations. Leadership does not just take on one form, it takes on many depending on the job, location or situation. Therefore, leadership transforms differently through all people. Leadership is also learned differently by all people. This poster will explain different paths taken by the 5 people I interviewed and how their leadership appears in their careers. Also, this presentation will explain what kind of leadership the 5 people look for in others and how that transforms or affects their leadership as well.

128. Leading Quietly
Dante West, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
This poster will be highlighting leaders from my hometown community and John Carroll community on how they lead by example.

129. Actions Speak Louder Than Words: Leading by Example
Meric Whetro, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
I explored leadership in a variety of different professional settings. I began by interviewing 5 different people at all different levels of leadership; all of which are major influences on my personal and professional life. The biggest characteristic that proved common throughout all of my interviews is that all five people strongly believe in engaging with ALL of their peers and integrating themselves into their work just as any of their peers do. This concept of leading by example builds a trust among peers that no amount of words can.

130. Marriage, Honor and Religion: Three Social Constraints Challenging Women’s Lives in Miguel de Cervantes’ The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha (PC)
Ovidiu Breahna, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Dr. Michael Khoury and Dr. Megan Thornton, Classical and Modern Languages
Throughout the course of a history dominated by men, women have often put forth great efforts in order to achieve the same rights and status as their male counterparts. In his text titled The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes reveals the social constraints that Spanish women were subjected to during the 17th century. Cervantes recounts the stories of the various female characters in his novel: Maritornes, Maritornes, Dulcinea, Dorotea and Zoraida. Through these women, the reader discovers more about the societal rigidity of Spanish society and control that the feminine sex was subjected to under the convention of marriage, honor and religion.

131. Desarrata
Kateri Dillon, Undergraduate, Honors Program
This fictional story explores boundaries between people of differing cultures, languages, socioeconomic backgrounds, professions, and fields of study through the narrative of a Bangladeshi boy and an American scientist struggling to attain justice in the midst of an unresolved public health crisis. The story itself incorporates a blend of academic disciplines, drawing on accurate information about recent biotechnology developments and public health problems. The story thus utilizes the genre of educational fiction to call for an increased depth of communication and upholding of human dignity.

132. Investigating the relationship between boldness, coloration, and chemical defense in the dendrobatid poison frog Oophaga pumilio
*Sarah K. Bolton, Graduate Student; Matthew W. Russell, Undergraduate; Dr. Ralph A. Saporito, Associate Professor, Biology
Organisms that are chemically defended often advertise their defenses to potential predators. One form of advertisement is through conspicuous coloration, which can serve as a warning of unpalatability to predators. Advertisement may also be enhanced through bold behaviors, which may include slower movements and escape tactics. The dendrobatid poison frog Oophaga pumilio possesses alkaloid-based chemical defenses, is brightly colored (aposematic), and behaves more boldly than cryptically colored, non-chemically defended frogs. Interestingly, O. pumilio exhibits considerable variation in alkaloid defenses and coloration throughout their natural geographic range in Costa Rica. It is currently unknown, however, whether coloration and alkaloid defenses correspond to differences in bold behavior. The present study investigated the relationship between alkaloid defenses, coloration, and bold behavior among three different populations of O. pumilio in Costa Rica. Our field-based study provides evidence that bold behaviors are largely related to the quantity and type of alkaloid defenses in O. pumilio.

133. Nutrient resorption of Quercus congeners grown in a common garden
Vivian Fung, Undergraduate
Internal plant nutrient recycling is a crucial process for plants growing in low nutrient environments. One mechanism promoting this process is nutrient resorption from senescing leaves. Our focus was to measure nutrient resorption in eight Quercus species adapted to low or high nutrient soils when grown in a common garden. We predicted plants from low nutrient sites would have greater nutrient resorption than plants from high nutrient sites, even when grown in a common soil type. To test this, leaf samples were collected from specimens growing in the UC Davis Arboretum for two years and analyzed for senesced leaf N and P. We determined oaks from high nutrient sites have poorer N resorption than those from low nutrient sites, but there was no difference among habitat of origin for P resorption. These data suggest that stronger N resorption is a constitutive trait expressed by oaks from low N sites.
This research was part of the JCU’s SURF program supported by the Weaver Fund.

134. Do Variable Alkaloid Defenses in the Red-belly Toad Melanophryniscus simplex Provide Equal Protection from Microbial Pathogens?
*Kyle J. Hovey, Graduate Student; Megan A. Boyk, Undergraduate; Dr. Erin E. Johnson, Associate Professor, Biology; Taran Grant, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo; and Dr. Ralph A. Saporito, Associate Professor, Biology
Alkaloids in poison frogs function as a predator defense, and some appear to inhibit microbial growth. However, alkaloid defenses are sequestered entirely from dietary arthropods and vary considerably among frog populations, reflecting geographic differences of prey availability. This variability in poison frogs’ defenses may have significant implications for protection against pathogens. While natural poison frog alkaloid mixtures inhibit non-pathogenic microbe growth, no studies have examined whether alkaloids inhibit anuran pathogens. Alkaloids were isolated from skin samples of red-belly toads, Melanophryniscus simplex, from six Brazilian populations with variable alkaloid profiles. Subcultures of known anuran pathogens Mycobacterium spp. were inoculated with extracted alkaloids, growth inhibition was examined using spectrophotometry, and alkaloids in frog extracts were characterized using GC-MS. Our results suggest that variation in alkaloid defenses lead to differences in inhibition of pathogenic microbes, and provide support that poison frog alkaloid defenses confer protection against both pathogens and predators.

135. Macrochaete (Cyanobacteria): a new genus representing the first step in revision of the genus Calothrix
Esther Berrendero; *Dr. Jeffrey R. Johansen, Biology; Jan Kastovsky, Marketa Bohunicka and Katerina Capkova
In the present study, we have studied the morphology and phylogeny of 45 tapering cyanobacteria in the Rivulariaceae, including representatives of both Rivularia and Calothrix. Of these, 35 were Calothrix-like (without a colonial mucilaginous investment). The freshwater and soil Calothrix fall into the C. parietina clade and are characterized by having a basal heterocyte, no akinetes, and gradual tapering ─ but not into a long hyaline hair. Macrochaete gen. nov. is a freshwater sister taxon to the Calothrix lineages. The species in this genus differ morphologically from other Calothrix by ability to produce two heteromorphic basal heterocytes and specific secondary structures of the 16S-23S ITS. An additional feature present in most species is the presence of a distal, long hyaline hair, but this character has low penetrance due to its expression only under specific environmental conditions (low phosphate), and in one species appears to be lost.

136. TBD
Jonathan Kilgore, Graduate Student
Limnothrix is a genus of cyanobacteria under the order Pseudanabaena. The Genus is known to primarily to inhabit the benthos despite their known aerotopes and other adaptations capable of controlling some of the mechanisms of photosynthesis. Limnothrix has ecological importance due to the naturally occurring toxins some strains produce. Epiphytic strains were sampled from a species of Nuphar in the lentic system of Lake Oneida from the University of North Florida. Initial analysis of the strains using GenBank showed an initial assessment being of 98% relativeness to other Limnothrix spp. when analyzing the 16S rDNA sequences. From bootstrap analysis the two strains formed a distinct cluster. Both strains showed morphological similarities. Initial morphological observations and the unique environment from which the strains were sampled from these strains are fundamentally distinct from previously recorded data of the genus. Strains the genus needs to be further observed for better understanding.

137. Seed Germination Requirements of Four Fire-Recruiter Chaparral Shrubs (PC)
Katherine McClain, Undergraduate, Honors Program
Chaparral ecosystems are biodiversity hot-spots, which are important to study due to their unique characteristics. Wildfires are a natural part of these systems. These fires are essential to vegetative regrowth and recycling, particularly in their role of stimulating germination in dormant seeds of the established seed bank. This study explored the fire-driven cues needed for seeds of key chaparral species to break dormancy, germinate, and establish. Four different species (of two congener pairs) seed was studied. The seeds were treated with various treatments mimicking wildfire conditions, including boiling water and harsh acid, and monitored for germination. Having the ability to germinate and establish chaparral plants from the seed bank is particularly important to study plant physiology and evolution in these unique ecosystems. This research was supported by the Barrett Undergraduate Endowment Research Award.

138. Use of Small Molecules to Abrogate the Intracellular Effects of Ebolavirus Protein 24 (PC)
Michael Pribula, Undergraduate, Honors Program
There have been 28,639 cases and 11,316 deaths as a result of the 2014 Ebolavirus outbreak. The fact that Ebolavirus inhibits the immune system contributes to its severity. Specifically, the Ebolavirus Protein 24 (EVP24) interferes with the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, which governs production of antiviral proteins. Our lab identified several molecules that function to enhance the JAK-STAT pathway. It is my hypothesis that these compounds could counter the effects of EVP24. To date, I have expressed EVP24 in mammalian cells. I will use the subcellular localization of phosphorylated-STAT1 to demonstrate the ability of EPV24 to disrupt nuclear shuttling. Further studies will then address the ability of our compounds to overcome this EVP24-mediated disturbance in trafficking. There are currently no FDA approved treatments for Ebolavirus. It is my goal to determine if modulation of the JAK-STAT pathway serves as a viable therapeutic intervention for this deadly disease.

139. Investigating the relationships between boldness, coloration, and toxicity in the dendrobatid poison frog Oophaga pumilio (PC)
Matthew Russell, Undergraduate
Organisms that are chemically defended often advertise their defenses to potential predators. One form of advertisement is through conspicuous coloration, which can serve as a warning of unpalatability to predators. Advertisement may also be enhanced through bold behaviors, which may include slower movements and escape tactics. The dendrobatid poison frog Oophaga pumilio possesses alkaloid-based chemical defenses, is brightly colored (aposematic), and behaves more boldly than cryptically colored, non-chemically defended frogs. Interestingly, O. pumilio exhibits considerable variation in alkaloid defenses and coloration throughout their natural geographic range in Costa Rica. It is currently unknown, however, whether coloration and alkaloid defenses correspond to differences in bold behavior. The present study investigated the relationship between alkaloid defenses, coloration, and bold behavior among three different populations of O. pumilio in Costa Rica. Our field-based study provides evidence that bold behaviors are largely related to the quantity and type of alkaloid defenses in O. pumilio.
This research was part of the JCU’s SURF program supported by the Weaver Fund.

140. A New Method for Extracting Alkaloid Defenses from Poison Frog Skins
*Emily M. Seiter, Undergraduate; Sarah K. Bolton, Graduate Student; Dr. Ralph A. Saporito, Associate Professor, Biology
Poison frogs possess a diversity of skin alkaloids that serve as a defense against predation and inhibit microbial infection. These alkaloid defenses are exclusively obtained from a diet of alkaloid-containing arthropods and differ significantly with species, geographic location, sex, size, and age. Previous research on the chemical ecology of these defenses has been largely dependent on sacrificing frogs to extract and chemically analyze alkaloids. Recently, a new non-destructive method of extracting alkaloids has been developed, using a Transcutaneous Amphibian Stimulator (TAS). This device delivers mild electrical pulses to the frog skin, causing it to release its alkaloids unharmed. The alkaloids can then be collected and extracted for analysis. The present study aims to develop a relationship between these two methods of extracting frog alkaloids, which may reduce the need to sacrifice frogs in studying the ecology and evolution of chemical defenses in poison frogs.

141. A new species of Stanieria (Cyanobacteria) isolated from a small pool on Mexican Riviera (PC)
*Sergei Shalygin, Graduate Student and Dr. Jeffrey R. Johansen, Biology
A sample from a small pool in the Mexican Riviera region (the eastern coastline of the Yucatan Peninsula) was collected in January 2015. Enrichment cultures from this sample were made, and a small coccoid cyanobacterium was isolated into unialgal culture from the enrichment cultures. This isolate is purplish in color, and produces numerous small endospores each division cycle called baeocytes. Morphologically it belongs to the genus Stanieria, which currently has four species, mostly isolated from marine environments. Our taxon is most similar to the type species, S. cyanosphaera, but differs in its reddish color and larger baeocytes. In a phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene, it is distant from the type species and paraphyletic to the Stanieria clade. From the information presently on hand, we conclude it is certainly a new species, but it could represent a new genus sister to Stanieria.

142. Anatomy of the Fully Formed Chondrocranium of Lepidochelys (Cryptodira: Cheloniidae) (PC)
Vinh Trinh, Undergraduate
This study describes the anatomy of the chondrocranium of Lepidochelys olivacea (Cryptodira, Cheloniidae) through embryonic development, and aims to understand the taenia marginalis. Cleared and double-stained embryos were dissected and observed. The taenia marginalis is present as a thin, ribbon-like process that extends posteriorly from the dorsal margin of the planum supraseptale, and was found to be present as a transient anatomical bridge between the planum supraseptale and the otic capsule in a late Stage 24 specimen. Though present and well-formed for a short period of time, the taenia martinalis is quickly resorbed and is absent in all later specimens examined. Therefore, studies that examine too few specimens or that do not examine the appropriate window of time in development likely will not see this structure, and investigators should be aware that it is easy to overlook this important anatomical landmark.

143. Peroxide Induced Specific Protein Modification in HeLa Cells (PC)
Abigail Beer, Undergraduate; Dr. Yuh-Cherng Chai, Assistant Professor, Chemistry
Oxidative stress is known to affect the function of several biological molecules, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, and also plays a major role in a variety of human diseases. The ability to modify protein structure and function through oxidative stress is one topic that has been widely studied. In this study, we focus on protein glutathionylation; the posttranslational modification of protein cysteine residues by the addition of glutathione. We compared the treatment of HeLa cells with oxygen free radical generating agents, hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, against the treatment of HeLa cells with diamide, a chemical oxidizing agent. Both oxidizing agents induced many glutathionylated proteins in treated cells compared to the control cells. More interestingly, in peroxide treated cells there is one prominent protein around 40 kDa that is not seen in diamide treated cells, which commonly serves as the positive control. To our knowledge, this is a novel protein because only peroxides induce this protein glutathionylation.
This research was part of the JCU’s SURF program supported by the Weaver Fund.

144. Molecular Dynamics of Ligand Binding into FABP5 (PC)
Brendan Brown, Undergraduate
A series of small molecules has been shown to bind strongly to Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 (FABP5), a protein associated with the growth of cancer cells. This protein naturally binds retinoic acid, but some of the small molecule ligands in this study are stronger binders. The variety of structural features of these ligands brings into question the binding mechanism for ligand recognition. Previously, we have used docking software to dock these ligands in the binding pocket of FABP5. In the work presented here, the binding mechanism is explored using the molecular dynamics software package, Amber14.

145. Molecular Dynamics Studies of CRABP-II (PC)
Nathanael Hunter, Undergraduate
This research was part of the JCU’s SURF program supported by the Weaver Fund.

146. Oxidative Stress and Alzheimer’s Disease
Alicia Monahan, Undergraduate, Honors Program

147. The Impact that Sleep Deprivation Has on Implicit and Explicit Memory
Angelique Hale, Early College Program
The purpose of this study is to examine how sleep deprivation affects teens’ explicit and implicit memory. Individuals who are sleep deprived can suffer from a decline in their overall physical, mental, and behavioral state. Sleep deprivation affects the conscious effort to recall or recognize information and to perform tasks that require conscious awareness (explicit memory). It also affects the brain’s ability to perform habitual tasks that do not need conscious awareness (implicit memory). The data that was collected revealed how sleep deprivation affected the brain’s ability to perform and focus on memory tasks that require explicit and implicit memory. The majority of the participants were considered sleep deprived because they achieved less than seven hours of sleep. Insufficient sleep impacted their ability to recall earlier events which required their explicit memory and the conscious effort needed to perform implicit tasks. Young people need to realize that insufficient sleep can impair their ability to perform at an optimal level.

148. Proton Nmr Studies of the Equilibrium of Ethyl Acetylacetate
*Natalie Osiecki, Undergraduate, Dr. Michael Nichols, Advisor, Chemistry, John Carroll University
The beta-dicarbonyl, Ethyl acetylacetate (EtAcAc), undergoes tautomerization between its keto and enol forms in solution. The tautomerization equilibrium was studied with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-NMR) at temperatures varying between 15-40oC and in solvents with different polarity. By measuring the equilibrium constant, Kenol, at different temperatures, the thermodynamic properties, Gibbs free energy (ΔG), and enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) changes can be obtained. In this project, the methyl groups of AcAc was substituted with both phenyl and tert-butyl groups to determine their effect on the equilibrium. It was found that substituting either a phenyl or tert-butyl groups shifted the equilibrium toward the enol form. A detailed thermodynamic analysis was performed to quantify how much the electronic effects (phenyl ring) and steric effects (phenyl and tert-butyl) contribute to the shift in equilibrium. Whether the shifts were enthalpically or entropically driven was also determined. These equilibrium reactions were also studied using molecular modelling calculations.

149. Proton NMR Studies of the Equilibrium of Acetylacetone
Natasha Taleff, Undergraduate
The beta-dicarbonyl, acetylacetone (AcAc), undergoes tautomerization between its keto and enol forms in solution. The tautomerization equilibrium was studied with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-NMR) at temperatures varying between 15-40oC and in solvents with different polarity. By measuring the equilibrium constant, Kenol, at different temperatures, the thermodynamic properties, Gibbs free energy (ΔG), and enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) changes can be obtained. In this project, the methyl groups of AcAc was sequentially substituted with both phenyl and tert-butyl groups to determine their effect on the equilibrium. It was found that substituting either a phenyl or tert-butyl groups shifted the equilibrium toward the enol form. A detailed thermodynamic analysis was performed to quantify how much the electronic effects (phenyl ring) and steric effects (phenyl and tert-butyl) contribute to the shift in equilibrium. Whether the shifts were enthalpically or entropically driven was also determined. These equilibrium reactions were also studied using molecular modeling calculations.

150. Bottom-Up Wet Chemical Synthesis of the Infinitely Adaptable Bismuth Telluride Series (PC)
*Dan Volpe, Undergraduate; Dr. Jeffrey Dyck, Physics; Dr. Paul Challen, Chemistry
Novel thermoelectric materials are necessary to solve the looming energy crisis, because they convert waste heat into usable energy. Bismuth telluride is a viable solution because of its room temperature thermoelectric properties. Bismuth telluride was synthesized from a bottom up wet chemical approach with a percent yield of ~90%. Synthesis time was reduced from fourteen days to two days. The starting reagent ratio was tuned to match the desired stoichiometry of the product, thus resulting in the identification of an infinitely adaptable series, (Bi2)m(Bi2Te3)n , where m,n are integer values. Bi2Te, BiTe and Bi2Te3 phases were characterized through x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively couple plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Lattice parameters a, c, d-spacing were determined and compared to the International Crystallographic Standards Database (ICSD) and researchers at Princeton. a, c, and d-spacing were found to be within 0.45% of literature values. This research was part of the JCU’s SURF program supported by the Weaver Fund.

151. Development of an Apparatus for Measuring the Nernst Effect in Semiconductor Pellets (PC)
Christopher Wrenn, Undergraduate
An apparatus for measuring the Nernst Effect in bar-shaped semiconductor pellets was designed. The Nernst Effect is a key thermoelectric effect used to understand characteristic properties of materials. Using the novel apparatus together with a cryostat and an electromagnet allows for measurement of this effect. The design of the apparatus required careful consideration regarding how the semiconductor sample would be aligned in the magnetic field. Since the pellets being studied were only a few millimeters big, some clever work had to be done in the machining process. Ultimately, the apparatus was used to measure the Nernst Coefficient in a sample of germanium to be -316 microvolts per Kelvin per Tesla. This value is within 5% of the value from literature, confirming that the apparatus works as hoped.

152. Investigating the characteristics of human long introns using TALEN
Noah Daniels, Undergraduate
Many introns in the human genome are over 100 kilobases in length and contain many pseudoexons that are not recognized by the spliceosome. An open question is whether functional exons embedded within large intronic regions require additional sequence information for splicing. To examine this idea, we are using genetic engineering using TALEN nucleases and homologous recombination to insert different exons into the middle of either a 107kb long intron (intron-4) or a small 100kb flanking introns and the other is exon-4 of PCK1 with very short flanking introns. Interestingly, the GRID2 exon is recognized and spliced normally irrespective of the insertion site. This suggests that little, if any, additional sequence information is needed. The PCK1 exon insertion studies are still ongoing.
Research conducted as part of the John Carroll University-Cleveland Clinic Foundation Summer Research Program

153. The Role That Gender Plays in the Recovery of Injured Student Athletes
Matej Bartulovic, Early College Program
The downside to high school sports is that injuries will occur. This research will focus on the severest injuries in sports between both genders. Data will be collected through the use of a survey which will determine which gender is at risk of injury, which gender gets more social support, and how the recovery process affects the student emotionally and physically. The survey questioned as to the participants age, the sport played, as well as the injuries that have been sustained and sought to determine the extent to which female student athletes are more susceptible to injuries than their male counterparts. This research has found that women are at a greater risk of severe injury and generally deal with more pain during the recovery process.

154. Clinical Guidelines in Practice: How Well are Primary Care Providers Following National Chronic Kidney Disease Recommendations? (PC)
Kaitlyn Edbauer, Undergraduate, Honors Program
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), prevalent in more the 10% of the United States population is a progressive, degenerative disease affecting the renal function of afflicted individuals. CKD has gained awareness among clinicians due to growing concern for the many complications that arise in patients with CKD. The KDIGO (Kidney Disease; Improving Global Outcomes) 2012 clinical guidelines for the treatment of CKD created uniform measures aimed to improve quality care and effective treatment of the CKD population. This study investigates the extent to which these measures are being implemented and adhered to among providers at the practice level. Analysis of adherence to six specific measures of the KDIGO guidelines uncovered areas of implementation strengths and weaknesses. Results indicate a widespread variation in adherence levels to each measure on the practice level as well as among individual providers. Results indicate the need for programs that will generate greater guideline adherence among providers.

155. The Correlation Between Emotional Disorders and Teen Obesity
Yidiayah S. Box, Early College Program
Obesity is a deadly epidemic in America and can lead to the development of emotional disorders in some overweight teenagers. The objective of this research is to identify the extent to which emotional disorders affect overweight children. Such emotional disorders include depression, anxiety, and behavioral disorders. The target group of this study consists of students in grades nine through twelve with the intention of identifying those with emotional disorders. The survey will explore the effect that bullying and body shaming have on the development of emotional disorders. This research will also examine the connection between emotional disorders and teenage obesity. When teens do not fit into society’s ideal image, frustration and self-consciousness can lead to emotional disorders.

156. An Analysis of Malaria Antibody Responses (PC)
Saida Gjinatori, Undergraduate
Statistical methods are used to explore antibody responses to malaria antigens. Principal components analysis (PCA) is utilized to identify combinations of variables that can be used in a model to study malaria responses; logistic regression to identify significant factors that result in malaria-stricken patients being symptomatic with malaria symptoms and retreated (also referred to as re-infected), and survival analysis to pictorially show effectiveness of different malaria antigens in prolonging the time to infection. The data include factors such as age of the patients (all were children ages 1-14), the time through infection, time of re-infection, and the response to different types of antigens (called IgG antibodies), measured in arbitrary units (AU). The injected antigens differed as did the subsequent strains coming from those antigens.

157. The Therapeutic Use of Rap Music to Treat Teens with Conduct Disorders
Clarissa Foxhall, Early College Program
When rap music was introduced into America, the sound was labelled as unsophisticated and “ghetto”. As rap’s popularity increased, the genre became one of the most successful genres in the music industry. Rap culture has managed to resonate with mainstream America and become an integral part of many teenagers’ personas. Therapists who treat conduct disorders in adolescents have turned to rap music as a form of treatment. Rap therapy is an effective tool for African American males who are less likely to respond to traditional forms of therapy because traditional therapy does not reflect their background.

158. Lipid Peroxidation of Linoleic Acid (PC)
*Joy Nyaanga, Undergraduate; Dr. Michael Nichols, Associate Professor, Chemistry
Lipid peroxidation occurs when a lipid reacts with a reactive oxygen species, such as oxygen gas, or Fe2+ ions and oxygen gas. The goal of this project was to use gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to analyze the lipid peroxidation products of linoleic acid, an essential ω-6 fatty acid. The optimum reaction conditions were identified by testing combinations of variables: buffer, pH, oxidant, and time. Oxidation of linoleic acid under optimum conditions yields several products: 2,4-decadienal, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), and 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE), which could be detected using GC-MS with methanol chemical ionization. The mechanisms of the formation of these products have been proposed by several researchers, and the pathways of each reaction were verified. Procedures to assess the effectiveness of beta-carotene and Vitamin E as antioxidants in preventing oxidation were also developed; beta-carotene was found to reduce the amount of oxidation products the most. The procedures developed in this project will be used to develop a advanced biochemistry laboratory that uses GC-MS to analyze the lipid peroxidation products of linoleic acid.
This research was part of the JCU’s SURF program supported by the Weaver Fund.

159. A Study of the Protein Yorkie and its Role in Hippo Pathway Signaling (PC)
Caroline Hall, Undergraduate, Honors Program
I intend to show my research on a putative dual role for a known protein, called Yorkie (Yki), involved in a cellular signaling pathway called the Hippo Pathway. This pathway is involved in several regulatory mechanisms for organ size, and when aberrant, can contribute to cancerous tumor development. Accordingly, study of this pathway plays a key role in understanding organ development and thereby tumors.

160. EPRS plays an important role in resolving the inflammatory response by inhibiting translation of pro-inflammatory genes
Caroline Hall, Undergraduate
tRNA synthetases function primarily in the ligation of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs with a high fidelity, generating aminoacyl t-RNAs – the substrate for protein synthesis. However, some members of this family of enzymes have additional domains that enable them to interact and crosstalk with various proteins involved in diverse pathways ranging from tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, anti-viral response, and transcription and translation regulation. Research from our laboratory has showed that EPRS, a bi functional tRNA synthetase, plays an important role in resolving the inflammatory response by inhibiting translation of pro-inflammatory genes by a multi-protein complex. During our studies with EPRS in myeloid cells, we found that a fraction of EPRS localizes to the nucleus under heat shock conditions. We believe that EPRS nuclear localization involves the upstream signaling pathway PTEN/PI3K. We have found that loss or down-regulation, via heat shock, of PTEN in cancerous cells leads to the nuclear localization of EPRS, causing increased proliferation of the cancer cells.
Research conducted as part of the John Carroll University-Cleveland Clinic Foundation Summer Research Program

161. The Correlation Between Baby Blues and The Severity of Postpartum Depression
Tamia Jackson, Early College Program
The purpose of this research is to find the correlation between the treatment of baby blues and the severity of postpartum depression. Maternal depression is a common condition after childbirth. Early onset, which is the “baby blues”, is a mild form of this disease. A mother could expect this disorder to be short term and manageable. Late onset, which is the severe form, lasts longer and has harsher side effects. When the two forms of depression are ignored, it is difficult for the mother to recover. Prompt diagnosis is critical as soon as symptoms are exhibited. Social support and medical attention are recommended treatments that could stop the progression of postpartum. Parenthood should be a beautiful time instead of a depressing experience for a mother.

162. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptors in Psoriasis (PC)
MacKenzie Lee, Undergraduate, Honors Program
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disorder in which overactive keratinocytes trigger the inflammatory response, leading to red and painful skin lesions. The inflammatory response begins when TNF-α binds to either of its two receptors, p55 or p75, and induces expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. Inflammation continues as these endothelial cell expressed molecules interact with leukocytes in the blood. Using a psoriasis model organism, the IMQ treated mouse, it was previously found that knocking out the p75 receptor is sufficient to reduce inflammation. This study uses qPCR to analyze expression of pro-inflammatory genes to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the phenotypic differences between p55, p75, and double knockout IMQ-treated mice. It was found that the double knockouts were equally or more successful at reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes like E-selectin, ICAM-1, P-selectin, VCAM-1, PECAM-1, and PRMT5 from wildtype mouse levels as compared to single knockout mice.

163. Role of DDX5 Phosphorylation in Colon Cancer
Hannah Niehaus, Undergraduate, Honors Program

164. An Analysis of Transformational Leadership and its Application Amongst Different Leaders
Brandon Parr*, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
Transformational leadership is a well-known, and highly successful, leadership theory. However, a more fundamental understanding of this theory, and its true application in everyday leadership environments, was desired. Therefore, five interviews, centering around the concept of leadership, and more specifically transformational leadership, were completed on the following leaders: Ty Brenning, Dr. Selva Baltan, Dr. George Lewandowski, Ronald Fano, Dr. Robert Hostoffer. Greater analysis of this information was then applied in order to determine recommendations for how this knowledge could be utilized positively in future leadership endeavors.

165. NOS Inhibition Promotes Axon Function Recovery by Preserving Axonal Mitochondria after Ischemia (PC)
Brandon Parr, Undergraduate; Chinthasagar Bastian, MBBS, Ph.D; Katharine Stahon, B.S; Sylvain Brunet, Ph.D; Selva Baltan M.D, Ph.D, Cleveland Clinic
Aging white matter (WM) becomes increasingly vulnerable to ischemic injury. We have shown that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity increases with age and L-NG-nitroarginine (L-NAME), a NOS inhibitor, protects young axon function more compared to aging axons after ischemia. We hypothesized that increased NOS activity in aging WM exacerbates axonal mitochondrial damage following ischemia. Mouse optic nerves from 2- and 12-month old mice were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and axonal mitochondrial ultrastructure were quantified using 3D-electronmicroscopy. In control conditions, young axons displayed numerous healthy mitochondria while aging axons had a lower number of healthy mitochondria. Following OGD healthy mitochondrial counts were reduced in young and aging axons. L-NAME protected young and aging mitochondria against ischemia but to a lesser extent in aging axons. Our results suggest that aging alters axonal mitochondria and increase NOS activity renders WM more vulnerable to ischemia.
Research conducted as part of the John Carroll University-Cleveland Clinic Foundation Summer Research Program

166. Binding Properties of Peptide (RRWRRRRRRAAATAPDNLGYM) With Poly-IC
*Brandon Parr and Ellen Piccillo, Undergraduates; Dr. David Mascotti, Chemistry; Esteban Celis, M.D, Ph.D., Augusta University
Immunological therapy for tumor mediation is a growing field of research. Peptides specific to tumor cells are injected, leading to killer T cell tumor necrosis. Peptide (R9-AAATAPDNLGYM) was isolated, but injection led to degradation. It was hypothesized that the peptide must be coupled to a polynucleotide, poly-IC. Peptide and poly-IC were diluted in HEPES buffer and analyzed with a fluorometer, through reverse titration and salt backing. A McGhee-von Hippel approximation and log (Kobs) vs. log (K+) plot were constructed from the data. The approximation was fit using an n, peptide binding site size, of 10, a K, binding constant, of 5.6X10^3, and a Qmax, quenching maximum, of 65%. The plot gave a slope of -5.05, cation displacement during binding, and a y-intercept of .79, low binding affinity. Injection of this solution should occur because binding affinity was achieved. Fluorometer experimentation should continue to determine greater binding affinity and thermodynamic capabilities.

167. Ischemia Impairs Mitochondrial Velocity in White Matter of the Brain in an Age-Dependent Manner
*Stephen Politano, Undergraduate; Dr. Selva Baltan, Dr. Sylvain Brunet, and Dr. Chinthasagar Bastian, Department of Neuroscience, Cleveland Clinic; Dr. Helen Murphy and Dr. Cyrilla Wideman, Neuroscience Program, John Carroll University (Advisors)
Research conducted as part of the John Carroll University-Cleveland Clinic Foundation Summer Research Program

168. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting 3’-UTR region of Protein Arginine Methyl Transferase 5 (PRMT5) inhibited TNF induction of proinflammatory genes in endothelial cells (PC)
*Ryan Salemme and *MacKenzie Lee, Undergraduates; Chad Braley, Unni Chandrasekharan and Paul DiCorleto, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation
Chronic inflammation of vascular endothelial cells can lead to the development of diseases such as atherosclerosis, which is one of the leading causes of death in developed nations. Atherosclerosis is mediated partly by signaling activity of proinflammatory cytokine receptors. Recent research has found that protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) plays a pivotal role in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) receptor signaling. TNF is potent proinflammatory cytokine. PRMT5 methylates arginine residues in proteins, including transcription factors critical for TNF receptor signaling. In this project, a siRNA targeting 3’-UTR region of PRMT5 is used to knockdown the expression of endogenous PRMT5. This strategy allows to reconstitute recombinant PRMT5 in endogenous PRMT5-depleted cells in vitro. We designed and tested three independent 3’-UTR-specific siRNAs targeting PRMT5 with varying knockdown efficacy. Among them siRNA-b showed maximum efficiency (>95%). We further show that siRNA-down-regulated TNF-induction of proinflammatory genes E-selectin (∼65%), and VCAM-1 (∼71%) in cultured endothelial cells.
Research conducted as part of the John Carroll University-Cleveland Clinic Foundation Summer Research Program

169. The Impact Of Orthorexic Behavior On Women’s Eating Habits
Armonni Whittiker, Early College Program
The purpose of this study is investigate the extreme choices that women make to achieve a desired appearance. A literature review will lend some insight into how orthorexic behavior affects women’s eating habits and their overall happiness. Women who demonstrate orthorexic behavior obsessively eat healthy foods and engage in exercise. They are influenced by society’s view of their physical characteristics and struggle with their body image. Women suffering from orthorexic behavior may also struggle with depression. This depression stems from worrying about their disorder and appearance. When women are compulsively attentive to their eating habits, it can have a negative impact on their emotional health.

170. Lactate dehydrogenase is crucial for tumor associated macrophage protection of multiple myeloma cells against chemotherapy (PC)
Carolyn Stierhoff, Undergraduate
Multiple myeloma is a cancer that develops in a mature B-cell known as a plasma cell, which is normally responsible for producing antibodies against foreign pathogens. Cancerous plasma cells form tumors known as plasmacytomas that develop in the bones and compete with healthy blood cell development. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that plays an important role in anaerobic respiration by converting pyruvate into lactate in the absence or low supply of oxygen. It has been observed that tumor associated macrophages, which are present in tumor environments, can protect plasmayctomas from chemotherapy treatment. We found out that an LDH knockdown in myeloma cells decreased tumor associated macrophages’ role in cell protection against chemotherapy treatment. Also, we found without LDH macrophages were not able to differentiate into tumor associated macrophages successfully. This suggests that LDH activity in tumor environments promotes tumor survival, tumorigenesis, and manipulates local macrophages into performing pro-tumor functions.
Research conducted as part of the John Carroll University-Cleveland Clinic Foundation Summer Research Program

171. Marijuana and Opioid Use in Patients with Chronic Non Cancer Pain
*Catherine Calhoun, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Dr. Giries Sweis, PsyD, and Dr. Kelly Huffman, PhD., Cleveland Clinic Neurological Center for Pain; Dr. Helen Murphy and Dr. Cyrilla Wideman, Neuroscience Program, John Carroll University (Advisors)
Recent research suggests that marijuana may augment the effectiveness of opioid analgesics. The current retrospective study examined a subset of data from a long standing IRB registry to determine if patients using marijuana in conjunction with chronic opioid therapy used lower doses of opioids. Marijuana users were matched with non-marijuana users also undergoing chronic opioid therapy based on age, gender and program admission data. Because research suggests that patients with therapeutic opioid addiction use more opioids, patients were also matched on this basis as well. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in daily oral opioid doses between marijuana and non-marijuana users. It is possible that results were confounded by the presence of a co-occurring therapeutic opioid disorder. Future research should be conducted prospectively, in patients without addictive disorders in order to examine if adjunctive marijuana use increases the efficacy of opioid analgesia.

172. The Effects of Zolpidem on Body Weight, Food Intake, Activity, and Anxiety in Female Rats
Rachel Mangan, Undergraduate, Honors Program
Zolpidem is a nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic drug. It is placed in the imidazopyridine class of drugs, which are gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor agonists due to their effect on the alpha-1 GABA-A receptor subunit. The present study focused on differences observed during administration of zolpidem to female rats as compared to male rats. Female rats receiving zolpidem did not differ significantly from control female rats. Male animals were more affected by zolpidem causing increased food intake, feed efficiency, relative food intake, anxiety, and visceral adiposity and decreased activity levels. Female rats exhibited little change during the withdrawal period compared to the experimental period; while, during the withdrawal period, male rats previously receiving zolpidem returned to levels observed during the habituation period. This suggests that the effects of zolpidem are longer lasting in the female body. The observed differences between genders may be useful in making dosage recommendations in clinical settings.

173. Effects of a High-Fat/High-Sucrose Diet on Metabolism, Spatial Working Memory, and Anxiety-Like Behavior in Rats
*Alexander Mihas, Undergraduate; Dr. Helen Murphy and Dr. Cyrilla Wideman, Neuroscience Program (Advisors)
A three decade growth of diets consisting of high fats and sugars among modern societies has contributed to soaring rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In addition to known consequences of these conditions, studies have found that they may also impact cognition. In this study, five rats were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet and five rats were fed a control diet. During the last week of the experiment, a Morris Water Maze was utilized to study spatial working memory for six days, with two trials per day. Furthermore, anxiety-like behavior was assessed prior to each trial. The study found that rats on the HFHS diet had significantly greater: daily caloric intake, percent change in body weight, renal and mesenteric fat, and blood glucose concentrations. On average, HFHS rats showed increased anxiety-like behavior between successive trials; however, no differences were found between groups in terms of spatial working memory.

174. Lack of Deleterious Side Effect in Naltrexone-Treated Rats
*Jacob Musiol, Undergraduate; Dr. Helen Murphy and Dr. Cyrilla Wideman, Neuroscience Program (Advisors)
In the United States, the increased prevalence of palliative care and pain management is a relatively new phenomenon. Consequently, opiate prescriptions have increased and new abuse pharmacotherapies, such as naltrexone treatment, have emerged. This experiment tested the effect of naltrexone, an opiate antagonist, on anxiety, body weight, food intake, and water intake, in rats in order to identify potential side effects. Twelve rats were divided into two equal groups, control and naltrexone-administered. Rats were tested for anxiety employing an elevated plus maze apparatus. Time spent in the open and closed arms was utilized for assessment of anxiety. Results indicated that there were no significant effects on anxiety, body weight, or food intake. A significant difference in water consumption was observed between the two groups suggesting that naltrexone induces polydipsia. Findings of this study may be of clinical significance in regard to the use of naltrexone for palliative care, pain management, and opiate abuse therapy in humans.

175. The Study of Intermediates of a Deprotonation Reaction of a Ketone with a Lithium Amide Base using 6Li, 15N NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling
*Sarah Sternbach, Undergraduate; Dr. Michael Nichols, Chemistry
Organolithium compounds can be solvated, and as a result, aggregate according to steric requirements of the solvent. In this study, [6Li,15N] lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (LiHMDS) was synthesized from [6Li] butyllithium and [15N] bis(trimethylsilyl)amine. Previous kinetic studies have shown that the rate of deprotonation decreases as the concentration of the lithium amide base is increased. In this study, the intermediates of the reaction were determined using 6Li and 15N NMR spectroscopy, and molecular modeling.

176. Effects of a High Fat Diet on Metabolism and Working Memory in Rats
*Sarah Sternbach, Undergradute; Dr. Helen Murphy and Dr. Cyrilla Wideman, Neuroscience Program (Advisors)
As humans and animals age, studies have shown a marked decline in cognitive functions, such as memory. Other factors, including obesity and dietary deficiencies, may also play a role in memory impairment. This study evaluated the effects that control and high fat diets had on metabolic parameters, as well as working memory of control and experimental female Long-Evans rats. A T-maze was utilized to examine working memory. There were marked increases in body weight, caloric intake, and adiposity in the high fat group as the experiment progressed. In addition, working memory was significantly impaired in the high fat group, which was characterized by a 60% decrease in retention. The results of this research demonstrate that a high fat diet has a negative effect on metabolism and working memory in the rat.

177. The factors of Physiological and Cognitive Science in the Consumer Decision Making Process
Kent Wise Jr., Early College Program
The intent of this research is to comprehend how personal needs, emotions and predilections shape customer decision making when choosing certain products. Factors such as brand recognition, brand relevance, and price determine what items/services an individual will choose. By reviewing existing literature and conducting surveys of consumers as well as interviews with business specialists, the data collected seeks to provide understanding into the thought process behind consumer decision making. The findings of this research will allow for a better understanding of the cognition behind the human decision making process, allowing them to be more efficient at attracting potential customers and to better connect with current customers. The combination of collected quantitative data and study of the human behavior will help determine why we as a society buy and use certain items from a deeper, more mental perspective.

178. The Role of Drebrin in Heroin Relapse
*Samantha Stein, Undergraduate; Dr. David Dietz, Department of Pharmacology/Toxicology, University at Buffalo; Dr. Helen Murphy and Dr. Cyrilla Wideman, Neuroscience Program, John Carroll University (Advisors)
Repeated exposure to opiates causes a change in the levels of various proteins within the nucleus accumbens. These changes are thought to be imperative in developing long-term adaptations that are essential for the transition towards the addicted state. Previous experiments show that repeated morphine exposure leads to a decreased expression of drebrin, an actin-associating protein. In the present study, it was hypothesized that overexpression of drebrin would cause a decrease in heroin relapse. Following exposure to heroin, rats with overexpression of drebrin demonstrated a decrease in heroin relapse when compared to control rats with no treatment, which was measured by examining the number of active responses produced by the animals. The number of active responses was increased in the animals exposed to heroin when compared to the animals exposed to saline. Thus, drebrin may play a key role in deactivating the pathway involved in stimulating the intensity of heroin relapse.

179. Harmful Self-Consciousness as a Result of Highly Interactive Online Platforms
Victoria Varner, Early College Program
The purpose of this study is to determine how teenage girls are impacted by social media. Social media is any platform that is used to facilitate highly interactive interaction such as Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Social media is very important to teenagers because it allows them to remain in constant contact with their peers. The survey will focus on teenage girls ages, thirteen-eighteen, years of age and four of the most popular platforms. The study will collect their opinions about how social media truly affects teenage girls’ self-image. In this study, there are hopes to determine if social media affects self esteem and self consciousness. The results of this analysis will also be used to determine if social media has a positive or negative impact. The anticipated outcome from this study would be the identification of the emotional toll that social media has on teenage girls.

180. Risk Perceptions of Smoking Cigarettes and Marijuana With and Without Risk Literature (PC)
*Jennifer Grant, *Taylor Hanes, *Madelyn Pierce, Loren Rawls, and *Catherine Tripp, Undergraduates, Psychology; Dr. Janet Larsen, Psychology
This study investigated whether smoking cigarettes or marijuana was perceived as physically or socially riskier, and whether literature about risk of substances would affect perception. Ninety-nine participants from the JCU Psych Pool participated in a 2 X 2 X 3 mixed design in which they rated their perception of risk. We found that, overall, smoking cigarettes was seen as more risky than smoking marijuana and not wearing a seat belt. It found that there was a significant difference between social and physical risk perception. Marijuana and not wearing a seat belt was seen as having a higher social risk than physical risk, and cigarettes had the opposite. Moreover, it was found that there was no significant effect of reading about the risks of substance abuse. This suggests that cigarettes are perceived as more risky than marijuana and that literature about risk does not have an effect on risk perception.

181. The Psychological Benefits of Dog Ownership
Da’Sheona Anderson, Early College Program
Pet owners and their dogs have a special relationship that is mutually beneficial. Dogs are very observant and understand if their owners are feeling stressed or not feeling well. This study will explore the extent to which dogs have a positive influence on their owners’ physical and emotional health by focusing on human – pet interactions. The survey target group will consist of dog owners over the age of twenty that are exposed to a stressful work environment.

182. Learning about sex: how does it affect your sexual future? (PC)
*Gabrielle-Douglas Hinchen, Undergraduate; Dr. Tracy Masterson, Professor, Psychological Science
The study is looking at how abstinence only education and comprehensive sex education affect a person’s view of sexuality. The study is a 2×2 between subjects design where the participants will be presented with one of two vignettes. In both of the vignettes the participant will be presented with a scenario where they will be helping a friend make a decision about a potential romantic partner. In one scenario the romantic partner is presented as promiscuous, promiscuous being defined as having multiple sexual partners and in the other scenario the partner is presented as having never had a sexual experience. The hypothesis is people who were presented with abstinent only education will tend to have negative responses to the potential partner who is sexually promiscuous. Also those who are have greater religious centrality in their life will have more negative responses to the partner who is sexually promiscuous.

183. Society’s View of Masculinity Promotes Aggressive Behaviors
Ashonti Austin, Early College Program
The purpose of this study is to determine how men process aggression differently from women. Society tends to reward males with respect for behaving aggressively while expecting women to behave in a more submissive and delicate manner. This study will determine if this reward system encourages men to be more aggressive than women. If society has the power to influence how men and women behave, then it should change its view of masculinity so that men are not forced to be so hostile and prone to violence.

184. The Influence of Facebook-Like Profiles on Employability (PC)
Francesca Mastrangelo, *Marina Stanovska, Victoria Thurman, Michael Rinicella, Undergraduates; Dr. Beth Martin, Psychological Science
With the increasing popularity of social networking websites (SNWs), like Facebook, employers are using SNW profiles to assess applicant employability. This study sought to determine if the type of Facebook-like profile (professional vs. unprofessional) and content (pictures vs. words) had a significant influence on ratings of applicant employability. Participants consisted of 106 undergraduate students from a mid-size university. They reviewed a job description, a job applicant’s resume and Facebook-like profile that was either professionally- oriented with pictures, professionally-oriented with words, unprofessionally-oriented with pictures or unprofessionally-oriented with words. Results indicated that a job applicant with a professionally-oriented profile received significantly higher ratings of employability than a job applicant with an unprofessionally-oriented profile. Additionally, the professional-oriented Facebook-like profiles that consisted of words received significantly higher ratings of employability than the professional-oriented Facebook-like profiles with pictures. This study suggests that individuals should place great importance in engaging in self-monitoring in what they post on their Facebook profile.

185. The Interdependence Between the Identification of Negative Psychopathology and Adult Criminal Behavior
Jamya Terry, Early College Program
The purpose of this study is to investigate the role that mental illnesses play in violent and criminal behaviors. Research suggests that psychiatric illnesses can have a negative impact on the cognition of the brain. Cognitive abilities can be distorted by the illness and cause irrational behavior. A person who behaves irrationally may be a threat to self and society. Multiple studies have determined that people with psychiatric illnesses tend to exhibit negative behaviors. Individuals who commit crimes such as murder, rape, and other brutal crimes usually have mental health problems. These violent crimes are associated with a person’s lack of empathy and remorse. Mental illness can impede the development of empathy and remorse. If a person lacks remorse, he/she will not be deterred by a consequence or regret committing a violent crime.

186. Effect of Participant Sex and University Prestige on Starting Salary Estimation (PC)
Giang Tran, Undergraduate
This study was conducted to examine if university prestige and sex of the participant influence starting salary estimations for a law school graduate. Ninety-eight UGs from a mid-sized, research, catholic university were used as participants. The study is a 2 (sex: male or female) X 2 (university prestige: prestigious or non-prestigious) mixed design completely between subjects ANOVA. Participants were shown a survey with six different scenarios containing two universities of high prestige, two universities of medium prestige, and two non-prestigious universities. Each scenario had nine different multiple choice options for starting salary estimations. The results demonstrated that there was no main effect on sex, however, there was a main effect for university prestige. There was no significant interaction found between sex and university prestige.

187. The Negative Impact Of Solitary Confinement On An Inmate’s Behavior
India Mccullough, Early College Program
The objective of this research is to explore how solitary confinement can have a negative impact on an inmate’s behavior. Research indicates that inmates who have experienced extended solitary confinement are more likely to harm themselves or attempt suicide. Solitary confinement is a strict method of punishment that is used to gain compliance from inmates until they fully cooperate with the rules. This method prevents a defiant or dangerous inmate from socializing with other inmates. This study will determine how solitary confinement impedes an inmate’s ability to live a normal life while incarcerated.

188. High Tech Crime
Stephen Attewell, Undergraduate, Dr. Dukes, Professor, Sociology and Criminology

189. Challenges Juvenile Offenders Face After Being Released from a Correctional Facility
Brandon Simon, Early College Program
The purpose of this research is to present the challenges that Caucasian or African-American juvenile offenders face after being released from being incarcerated and attempting to continue their education. Its is generally accepted that those who leave a correctional facility face a number of barriers and that is no less for juvenile offenders. Regardless of race, teenage offenders face problems with re-entry to school and continuing their education. Former and current inmates will be surveyed to determine the obstacles they had face. In addition to which, parole officers will also shed light on the supports, and lack thereof, provided to ex-offenders. The findings of this study will allow for greater understanding and empathy for juvenile offenders that are faced with challenges on their journey to success.

190. Criminology in Action: Observation from Chardon Municipal Court
Tristan Bourdess, Undergraduate, Dr. Duane Dukes, Professor, Sociology and Criminology
This poster examines how sociological and criminological concepts operate in a court setting. It focuses especially on criminology concepts and theories such as deterrence theory, recidivism, and social control theory. These concepts and theories were observed regularly in this setting, and social patterns were explored. This research is based on a semester long observation done in a municipal court, as well as a variety of other annexed organizations such as the Chardon Police Department, Geauga County Jail, and the Geauga County Sheriffs Office. In addition, the student research worked in the setting being examined.

191. Taking the Lead: Applicability of Authentic Leadership across Multiple Professions
Nicolle Simonovic, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
Leaders exhibiting authentic leadership are perceived to be genuine and sincere. Along with this, authentic leaders are motivated by a purpose for what they do that stems from their core values. This style of leadership can be found within multiple professions as demonstrated by personal interviews with five local leaders. The positions of these leaders range from academic and political leadership to leadership within a nonprofit and programs for at risk individuals. With all of the leaders interviewed demonstrating authentic leadership across their different professions, this serves to support the applicability and hence the existence of this construct to the real world setting. Further, these interviews support internalizing principles of authentic leadership to develop one’s own leadership style.

192. Looking for the Perfect Roommate: Social Distance as an Indicator of Anti-Semitism
Nicolle Simonovic, Undergraduate; Dr. John Yost, Psychological Sciences
In a report on global anti-Semitism, the State Department recognizes that Jews are being targeted at the highest frequency seen since WWII. According to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, a major setting where anti-Semitism exists is the college campus. This study was conducted to assess anti-Semitism on the college campus, by examining whether college students would demonstrate higher levels of social distance for potential roommates that identified as Jewish and were religiously observant. Except for the least personal items where more tolerance was displayed, participants indicated greater social distance from targets with high religious observance as compared with no religious observance, regardless of an explicit statement of the target’s religion. While some details of observance were relevant to other religions, all considered together were only applicable to Jewish observance, thereby suggesting evidence for relatively more subtle anti-Semitism.

193. Asurint, Verify Every Hire
Matt Francis, Undergraduate
Asurint provides a better way to complete background checks. They provide extremely accurate results with very small turnaround times for employers or businesses. They use the most up to date technology to provide a complete and thorough background check for the business. They use many different angles to ensure the quality the client is looking for. In addition they obey the rules of the FCRA, DPPA and the GLBA to ensure private consumer information.

194. Simulating light propagation in brain tissues using ray tracing (PC)
Silas Ifeanyi, Undergraduate
Monitoring changes in quantity of metabolic markers such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) can give insight into brain metabolism, hemodynamics and activities at a cellular level. Per its fluorescent nature, changes in NADH concentration can be measured using two photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM). However, hemodynamic changes, present during in vivo measurements, distort the small fluorescent emission from NADH as it is strongly absorbed by hemoglobin. A correction factor, K, calculated by simulating TPLSM on cortical vasculature with NADH and a physiologically inert dye, resolves this distortion. Within 100 µm of a vasculature, K varies with vessel size and position, but at depths greater than 100 µm, K plateaus to a positive constant, 1.06-1.14. This trend was found to be present in three combinations of vasculature species and dyes.

195. Creating Community in Health amongst John Carroll Students
Jillian Jensen, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
I wanted to create a group at John Carroll that enables students to connect and work toward keeping a healthy lifestyle in college while under the pressure of school. It is sometimes hard to stay on track with school and staying in good physical and mental health. I thought it would be beneficial to students to have a support group consisting of students who have common interests in staying healthy. The group not only helps people stay on track and focused throughout completing their degree, but also allows students to have a designated time every week to focus on bettering themselves in aspects of physical health in regards to diet and exercise. It is easier for people to commit to a plan with the support of others, especially those in common a situation which is why this group is something the student body can benefit from.

196. Exploring Transformational Leadership in Various Health Professions (PC)
Jillian Jensen, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
Transformational leadership depends on communication in order to meet goals. This involves a high level of motivation given to employees by leaders in order to be productive. I interviewed five leaders within the health field from local to national levels about their practice of transformational leadership in their profession. Communication is key, and the views of effective communication each of these individuals hold was considered. I examined how the communication from leaders to a team impacted the patients or individuals they come in contact with outside of the team and the levels of success they had.

197. Diffused Reflectance Spectroscopy for Absorbance of Tattooed Skin
Joe McGreal, Undergraduate; Gage Marek, alumnus; and Dr. Peifang Tian, Physics
Laser treatment to remove tattoos has become a huge business in recent years due to the larger volume of the public who have tattoos. The current status of laser removal is painful and sometimes ineffective for unknown reasons. The optical properties that are important when using lasers on skin are the absorption and scattering coefficients. The diffused reflected light from a sample is used to find the absorption coefficient. A UV-VIS light source is coupled to a seven fiber probe with six outer fibers that deliver light to the sample and one central fiber that collects the reflected light from the sample. The system is calibrated using skin simulating phantoms with known optical properties. The calibration values found are k1 = 0.000697 and k2 = 1.17098, but are most likely not as accurate as the accepted value. The absorption coefficient as a function of wavelength was calculated for three human subjects using the accepted calibration values.
This research was part of the JCU’s SURF program supported by the Weaver Fund.

198. Characterization of the Bandwidth Gap of Graphene Quantum Dots
Sarah Blask, Undergraduate
Following the characterization and discovery of a high-yield production method of graphene in 2004, applications utilizing this so-called “wonder nanomaterial” spread to virtually every area of research. One in particular is the area of graphene quantum dots (GQD’s) as a low-toxicity replacement of collodial quantum dots, which are utilized as a semiconductor material in optical applications such as LEDs. For this investigation, various methods of synthesizing GQD’s via the “Top-Down” approach were characterized for their subsequent bandwidth gap, which relate to the color of visible light that would be emitted in an LED application. Furthermore, the investigation also sought to yield a standardized procedure for the approach in question that can produce a consistent and repeatable product.
This project is funded by Physics Department; special thanks to Dr. Michael A. Nichols in the Chemistry department.

199. AKT Signaling Cascade And The Effect It Has On The Vasculature System In Retinas
Angelina Huber, Undergraduate
Endothelial cells in growing tumors express activated Akt, which results in abnormal and enlarged blood vessels. Various drugs have been analyzed in order to inhibit Akt signaling in order to suppress tumor growth. The vasculature system of the retina in the double Akt knockout mice, termed CFA, were analyzed and compared to the wild type. The distance to first branch point and the diameter of vessels were measured in 2 week and 4 week old retinas in both the CFA and wild type mice. The data was quantified using FIJI and graphpad, which calculated the significance of each data set. The vasculature system in the 2 week old retinas was not as significant, since the difference in structure is not as prominent as compared to the 4 week old CFA vs. WT mice.

200. Hydrazone synthesis: E/Z conformational selectivity
Rawaa Hadib Nissan, Undergraduate
Hydrazones have shown great promise as transition metal ligands. They are particularly important as they serve as a key element in clinical therapy. Hydrazones can be formed when a substituted hydrazine reacts with either an aldehyde or a ketone. In work performed by our collaborators, a mono-hydrazinopyridine was reacted with several ketones. When the ketone is asymmetrical, the product can have either an E or Z configuration. The project sought to determine E/Z selectivity for the formation of hydrazones from asymetrical ketones using ab initio computational techniques.

The following posters have been designated as “Posters of Special Merit.”  Congratulations to the awardees!
Posters will be on display in the Grasselli Library Lobby until May 1, 2016.

  1. Transformational Leadership within Diversity and Inclusion
    Mercedes Lewis, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
    I will explore the theory and practice of transformational leadership, which seeks to identify a needed change, and working with others to develop a blueprint for change through the inspiration of others desiring the change. I will interview five leaders in various fields that deal with diversity and inclusion diversity and inclusion. I will focus on the importance of a diverse and inclusive workplace accompanied with diverse leaders that are experienced in diversity training. I will examine the role that transformational leadership in a work setting and how it is in correlation to a diverse and inclusive environment.

 

  1. Transformational Leadership in the Human Resource Management Field
    *Eleni Nikolakis, Undergraduate; Dr. Jonathan Smith, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program; Dr. Kyle O’Dell, Co-Director Leader Scholars Program
    Transformational Leadership is when leaders and teammates help to develop each other through embracing new standards, empowerment, and engagement. This type of leader creates a vision and motivates their teammates to exceed goals through the 4 main elements including idealized influence, individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, and inspirational motivation. Interviews with Human Resource Management professionals and research show that transformational leadership is most commonly used and effective when an organization is going through change along with open and honest communication.

 

  1. Seed Germination Requirements of Four Fire-Recruiter Chaparral Shrubs
    Katherine McClain, Undergraduate, Honors Program
    Chaparral ecosystems are biodiversity hot-spots, which are important to study due to their unique characteristics. Wildfires are a natural part of these systems. These fires are essential to vegetative regrowth and recycling, particularly in their role of stimulating germination in dormant seeds of the established seed bank. This study explored the fire-driven cues needed for seeds of key chaparral species to break dormancy, germinate, and establish. Four different species (of two congener pairs) seed was studied. The seeds were treated with various treatments mimicking wildfire conditions, including boiling water and harsh acid, and monitored for germination. Having the ability to germinate and establish chaparral plants from the seed bank is particularly important to study plant physiology and evolution in these unique ecosystems.
    This research was supported by the Barrett Undergraduate Endowment Research Award.

 

  1. Use of Small Molecules to Abrogate the Intracellular Effects of Ebolavirus Protein 24
    Michael Pribula, Undergraduate, Honors Program
    There have been 28,639 cases and 11,316 deaths as a result of the 2014 Ebolavirus outbreak. The fact that Ebolavirus inhibits the immune system contributes to its severity. Specifically, the Ebolavirus Protein 24 (EVP24) interferes with the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, which governs production of antiviral proteins. Our lab identified several molecules that function to enhance the JAK-STAT pathway. It is my hypothesis that these compounds could counter the effects of EVP24. To date, I have expressed EVP24 in mammalian cells. I will use the subcellular localization of phosphorylated-STAT1 to demonstrate the ability of EPV24 to disrupt nuclear shuttling. Further studies will then address the ability of our compounds to overcome this EVP24-mediated disturbance in trafficking. There are currently no FDA approved treatments for Ebolavirus. It is my goal to determine if modulation of the JAK-STAT pathway serves as a viable therapeutic intervention for this deadly disease.

 

  1. A new species of Stanieria (Cyanobacteria) isolated from a small pool on Mexican Riviera
    *Sergei Shalygin, Graduate Student and Dr. Jeffrey R. Johansen, Biology
    A sample from a small pool in the Mexican Riviera region (the eastern coastline of the Yucatan Peninsula) was collected in January 2015. Enrichment cultures from this sample were made, and a small coccoid cyanobacterium was isolated into unialgal culture from the enrichment cultures. This isolate is purplish in color, and produces numerous small endospores each division cycle called baeocytes. Morphologically it belongs to the genus Stanieria, which currently has four species, mostly isolated from marine environments. Our taxon is most similar to the type species, S. cyanosphaera, but differs in its reddish color and larger baeocytes. In a phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene, it is distant from the type species and paraphyletic to the Stanieria clade. From the information presently on hand, we conclude it is certainly a new species, but it could represent a new genus sister to Stanieria.

 

  1. Anatomy of the Fully Formed Chondrocranium of Lepidochelys (Cryptodira: Cheloniidae)
    Vinh Trinh, Undergraduate
    This study describes the anatomy of the chondrocranium of Lepidochelys olivacea (Cryptodira, Cheloniidae) through embryonic development, and aims to understand the taenia marginalis. Cleared and double-stained embryos were dissected and observed. The taenia marginalis is present as a thin, ribbon-like process that extends posteriorly from the dorsal margin of the planum supraseptale, and was found to be present as a transient anatomical bridge between the planum supraseptale and the otic capsule in a late Stage 24 specimen. Though present and well-formed for a short period of time, the taenia martinalis is quickly resorbed and is absent in all later specimens examined. Therefore, studies that examine too few specimens or that do not examine the appropriate window of time in development likely will not see this structure, and investigators should be aware that it is easy to overlook this important anatomical landmark.

 

  1. Clinical Guidelines in Practice: How Well are Primary Care Providers Following National Chronic Kidney Disease Recommendations?
    Kaitlyn Edbauer, Undergraduate, Honors Program
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), prevalent in more the 10% of the United States population is a progressive, degenerative disease affecting the renal function of afflicted individuals. CKD has gained awareness among clinicians due to growing concern for the many complications that arise in patients with CKD. The KDIGO (Kidney Disease; Improving Global Outcomes) 2012 clinical guidelines for the treatment of CKD created uniform measures aimed to improve quality care and effective treatment of the CKD population. This study investigates the extent to which these measures are being implemented and adhered to among providers at the practice level. Analysis of adherence to six specific measures of the KDIGO guidelines uncovered areas of implementation strengths and weaknesses. Results indicate a widespread variation in adherence levels to each measure on the practice level as well as among individual providers. Results indicate the need for programs that will generate greater guideline adherence among providers.

 

  1. Lipid Peroxidation of Linoleic Acid
    *Joy Nyaanga, Undergraduate; Dr. Michael Nichols, Associate Professor, Chemistry
    Lipid peroxidation occurs when a lipid reacts with a reactive oxygen species, such as oxygen gas, or Fe2+ ions and oxygen gas. The goal of this project was to use gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to analyze the lipid peroxidation products of linoleic acid, an essential ω-6 fatty acid. The optimum reaction conditions were identified by testing combinations of variables: buffer, pH, oxidant, and time. Oxidation of linoleic acid under optimum conditions yields several products: 2,4-decadienal, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), and 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE), which could be detected using GC-MS with methanol chemical ionization. The mechanisms of the formation of these products have been proposed by several researchers, and the pathways of each reaction were verified. Procedures to assess the effectiveness of beta-carotene and Vitamin E as antioxidants in preventing oxidation were also developed; beta-carotene was found to reduce the amount of oxidation products the most. The procedures developed in this project will be used to develop a advanced biochemistry laboratory that uses GC-MS to analyze the lipid peroxidation products of linoleic acid.
    This research was part of the JCU’s SURF program supported by the Weaver Fund.

 

  1. A Study of the Protein Yorkie and its Role in Hippo Pathway Signaling
    Caroline Hall, Undergraduate, Honors Program
    I intend to show my research on a putative dual role for a known protein, called Yorkie (Yki), involved in a cellular signaling pathway called the Hippo Pathway. This pathway is involved in several regulatory mechanisms for organ size, and when aberrant, can contribute to cancerous tumor development. Accordingly, study of this pathway plays a key role in understanding organ development and thereby tumors.

 

  1. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptors in Psoriasis
    MacKenzie Lee, Undergraduate, Honors Program
    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disorder in which overactive keratinocytes trigger the inflammatory response, leading to red and painful skin lesions. The inflammatory response begins when TNF-α binds to either of its two receptors, p55 or p75, and induces expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. Inflammation continues as these endothelial cell expressed molecules interact with leukocytes in the blood. Using a psoriasis model organism, the IMQ treated mouse, it was previously found that knocking out the p75 receptor is sufficient to reduce inflammation. This study uses qPCR to analyze expression of pro-inflammatory genes to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the phenotypic differences between p55, p75, and double knockout IMQ-treated mice. It was found that the double knockouts were equally or more successful at reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes like E-selectin, ICAM-1, P-selectin, VCAM-1, PECAM-1, and PRMT5 from wildtype mouse levels as compared to single knockout mice.

 

  1. Lactate dehydrogenase is crucial for tumor associated macrophage protection of multiple myeloma cells against chemotherapy
    Carolyn Stierhoff, Undergraduate
    Multiple myeloma is a cancer that develops in a mature B-cell known as a plasma cell, which is normally responsible for producing antibodies against foreign pathogens. Cancerous plasma cells form tumors known as plasmacytomas that develop in the bones and compete with healthy blood cell development. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that plays an important role in anaerobic respiration by converting pyruvate into lactate in the absence or low supply of oxygen. It has been observed that tumor associated macrophages, which are present in tumor environments, can protect plasmayctomas from chemotherapy treatment. We found out that an LDH knockdown in myeloma cells decreased tumor associated macrophages’ role in cell protection against chemotherapy treatment. Also, we found without LDH macrophages were not able to differentiate into tumor associated macrophages successfully. This suggests that LDH activity in tumor environments promotes tumor survival, tumorigenesis, and manipulates local macrophages into performing pro-tumor functions.
    Research conducted as part of the John Carroll University-Cleveland Clinic Foundation Summer Research Program

Congratulations to the winners of the 2016 Art Exhibit at the Celebration:

  • 1st Place: Ruta Marino: Home Is Where It Happens
  • 2nd Place: Debora Schmidt: Crimson Rosella & Sulfur Cockatoo
  • 3rd Place: Salomon Rodezno: That’s Not My Name, Part 1

Art work will be on display in the Tully Atrium at Grasselli Library until May 1, 2016.

The R.E.A.L. Early College High School is a collaboration between the Cleveland Heights-University Heights School District and John Carroll University. During their first two years of high school, CH-UH students take accelerated courses in science, social studies, math and English. Students can qualify to attend John Carroll University during their last two years of high school to earn both high school and college credit.

Early College students will be presenting in the Celebration of Scholarship with a dedicated panel session and will be participating in the Celebration’s Poster Session.

  • Poster Session: Monday, April 11, 2016 from 5:30 to 6:15 PM in the Dolan Science Center’s Muldoon Atrium.
  • Early College Panel Session: Wednesday, April 13, 2016 from 6:30 to 7:45 PM in the Dolan Science Center Reading Room (located on the first floor of the Dolan Science).

For more about John Carroll’s commitment to the program, read “Early college credit program gets R.E.A.L.

During the week of April 11-14, 2016, Students for Social Justice hopes to inform the campus about human rights issues surrounding immigration and the migrant trails by creating an on-campus mock border wall. We will place this wall around the outside steps of the Lombardo Student Center, leaving open the ramp for access to the center. The wall will block off the primary access to the Student Center in order to add a shock value and spark interest in the information on the wall displays. The wall will provide information about issues such as the migrant trail, the restrictions of the current immigration system, infra-structural issues in Latin America forcing people to migrate to the U.S., and issues immigrants face here in the U.S. There will also be a particular focus on the impact of prejudiced language used by politicians and the media. We will present the information with creative displays to get the attention of those walking past the wall.

Our goal in creating this visual advocacy project is to inform the campus about issues with our immigration system and have a conversation about the impacts of prejudiced language. We hope this mock border wall will create conversation on campus and in the classroom. Attached are photos of mock border walls other schools have put up across the country.

Lecture sponsored by the Walter & Mary Tuohy Chair of Interreligious Studies

  • DATE: April 13, 2016
  • TIME: 7:30 PM
  • LOCATION: Donahue Auditorium, Dolan Science Center

“Art, Ritual, and Secret Space on the Silk Road”

Presented by:

  • Professor Qiang Ning,
    Chu-Niblack Associate Professor in Asian Art
    Curator of the Chu-Griffis Asian Art Collection
    Connecticut College

Lecture Description:  The legendary Silk Road often fascinates us with its exotic life styles, vanished religions, and archaeological discoveries. This presentation reveals the secrecy of mythical rituals on death, divinity, food, wealth, and political legitimacy by examining the 12th century painting, sculpture and architecture remaining in a newly discovered artificial cave in the Chinese northwestern desert. The interplay of art, religion, and politics is discussed in the context of cultural exchanges between the Tangut nation (Xixia), Tibet and Song dynasty China.

Bio:  Qiang Ning received his Ph.D. degree from the Department of Fine Arts, Harvard University, in 1997 and has taught at Yale, San Diego State, and the University of Michigan since then. Currently, he teaches Asian art courses and supervises the Chu-Griffis Collection of Asian Art at Connecticut College.

Schedule


Monday | Tuesday | Wednesday | Thursday | Friday


Monday, April 11, 2016

All Week: Celebrate the Art Exhibit
Grasselli Library, Tully Atrium & Gallery

All Week: Mock Wall Presentation
Sponsored by Students for Social Justice
In front of Grasselli Libary and the Lombardo Student Center

MON Noon. Pre-Health Luncheon Discussion
“From JCU to Child Neurology to Alzheimer’s Research at Janssen: Navigating a Career Path in Health”
Gerald Novak, M.D.
Senior Director at Janssen Pharmaceuical
Sponsored by the Office of the Provost and Academic Vice President and the Associate Dean of Science’s Office
By invitation only

MON 3-5 p.m. Research Reception
Remarks at 3:30 p.m.
Grasselli Library and Breen Learning Center, Muir Room
Sponsored by the Provost and Academic Vice President and the Academic Deans
By invitation only

MON 5-6 p.m. Participant Reception
Dolan Science Center, Muldoon Atrium
Open to all Celebration Participants

MON 5:30-7 p.m. Poster Session and Poster Competition
Including the Early College Presenters

Dolan Science Center, Muldoon Atrium
Refreshments

MON 9-11 p.m. The Arts at Night
Lombardo Student Center, The Underground
Refreshments

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Tuesday, April 12, 2016

All Week: Celebrate the Art Exhibit
Grasselli Library, Tully Atrium & Gallery

All Week: Mock Wall Presentation
Sponsored by Students for Social Justice
In front of Grasselli Libary and the Lombardo Student Center

TUE Noon. Scholarly Lunch
Sponsored by the Office of the Provost and Academic Vice President
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room
(1) Dr. Marc Kirschenbaum, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science: “Successful Blending of Human and Swarm Intelligences”
(2) Dr. Zeki Saritoprak, Department of Theology and Religious Studies: “Islamic Spirituality 101: Basics for the Modern World”
Reservations requested; open to members of the John Carroll Community

TUE 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session A
Individual Paper Session

Moderator: Dr. Elizabeth Antus, Theology & Religious Studies
Dolan Science Center, A202
(1) Alora Cinicola: “Opinions of Catholic University Students on Continuum of Life Issues”
(2) Mary Coffey: “Praying with Images: Encountering God through Creative Expression”
(3) Pam Chaney: “Go and See: Creating Community, Not Clients in Mark 6:34-44”

TUE 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session B
OPEN

Dolan Science Center, A203

TUE 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session C
Individual Paper Session

Moderator: Dr. Wendy Wiedenhoft Murphy, Sociology & Criminology
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room
(1) Dr. Greg DiLisi: “Remembering the S. S. Edmund Fitzgerald”
(2) Grace Donnelly: “Understanding Public Perceptions of U.S. Immigration Policy and Recommendations for Improving Immigration Policy”

TUE 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session D
PANEL: Peacebuilding in Northern Ireland

Moderator: Dr. Philip Metres, English
Dolan Science Center, A202
(1) Kateri Dillon: “Bobby Sands and Baroness May Blood: The Role of Storytelling in Northern Ireland”
(2) Emily Tusick: “Stories of Northern Ireland: The Website”
(3) Kevin Kussmaul: “The Role of Religion in Peacebuilding in Northern Ireland”
(4) Tyler Moran: “The Economics of Conflict in Northern Ireland”
(5) Jill Sullivan: “Seamus Heaney and the Role of the Arts in Peacebuilding”

TUE 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session E
PANEL: Women’s Stories – Feminist Critiques of Personal Accounts, a Fairy Tale and a Classic Novel

Moderator: Dr. Brent Brossmann, Tim Russert Department of Communication & Theatre Arts
Dolan Science Center, A203
(1) Elizabeth Golias: “Ethics in Dove’s Choose Beautiful Campaign”
(2) Shannon Kinnear: “If the Shoe Fits: A Feminist Cinderella Story”
(3) Ellen Liebenguth: “The Persuasion of Jane Austen’s Persuasion

TUE 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session F
Individual Paper Session

Moderator: Dr. Margaret Farrar, Dean, College of Arts & Sciences
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room
(1) Derek Jenkins: “The Fair Trade Movement and the Domestic Coffee Industry”
(2) Dr. Brian Saxton: “Toward a theory of supply-side mobility constraint: Assessing value creation and value capture”

TUE 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session G
PANEL: Violence in Schools: What Can Professional School Counselors Do?

Moderator: Dr. Nancy Taylor, Counseling
Dolan Science Center, A202

TUE 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session H
PANEL: A Program Evaluation of Youth Services for Lutheran Metropolitan Ministry

Moderator: Dr. Penny Harris, Sociology & Criminology
Dolan Science Center, A203
Presenters: Oriana Brenzo, Hope Camerino, Adam Chaney, Maria Mangione, Tyra Sandler, Vinh Trinh, Emily Tusick, Natalie Wetzel, and Mohamed Yugo

TUE 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session I
SPEAKER PRESENTATION: Journey to Ararat

Moderator: Dr. Jim Krukones, History
Pietro Shakarian, Alumnus
Co-Sponsored by the Gomidas Institute
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room

TUE 6:30 p.m. Mitsui Lecture
“Art of the Silk Road & Japan”

Patricia Graham
Dolan Science Center, Donahue Auditorium
Sponsored by the East Asian Studies Program

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Wednesday, April 13, 2016

All Week: Celebrate the Art Exhibit
Grasselli Library, Tully Atrium & Gallery

All Week: Mock Wall Presentation
Sponsored by Students for Social Justice
In front of Grasselli Libary and the Lombardo Student Center

WED 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session J
PANEL: Honors Panel

Moderator: Dr. Angie Jones, Honors Program
Dolan Science Center, A202
(1) Halle Herringshaw: “Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research vs. Alternative Stem Cell Research: Is there a compromise?”
(2) Tyler Nellis: “Economic Representation in Democracy”
(3) Edward Zgrabik: “Evaluating the Inevitable: Chinese Cars in the United States”
(4) Katelyn DeBaun: “Content, Interaction and Media Portrayal of Violence against African Americans in Mainstream and Citizen Journalism”

WED 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session K
PANEL: Scenes from the Next Big TV Shows

Moderators: Dr. Sharon Kaye, Philosophy and Dr. Tom Pace, English
Dolan Science Center, A203

WED 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session L CANCELLED
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room

WED 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session M
PANEL: New Beginnings – Rhetorical Analyses of Change

Moderator: Dr. Brent Brossmann, Tim Russert Department of Communication & Theatre Arts
Dolan Science Center, A202
(1) Thomas Roth: “Apologia in LeBron James’ Homecoming Letter to Cleveland”
(2) Madeline Smanik: “A Rhetorical Criticism of Barack Obama’s 2009 Inaugural Address”
(3) Madison Suvak: “The Rebranding of Feminism for Today’s Generation”

WED 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session N
OPEN

Dolan Science Center, A203

WED 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session O
OPEN

Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room

WED 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session P
PANEL: Shining a Spotlight on Contemporary Social Issues: Sociology Faculty Discuss their Research

Moderator: Dr. Susan Long, Sociology & Criminology
Dolan Science Center, A202
(1) Dr. Medora Barnes: “‘Sister Moms’ and the World of Donor Kinship Networks”
(2) Dr. Gassan Abess: “Analyzing Citizens’ Reported Levels of Confidence in the Police: A Cross-National Study of Public Attitudes Toward the Police in the United States and South Korea”
(3) Dr. Richard Clark and Dr. Gloria Vaquera: “Gendered Changes in White University Student’s Attitudes on Drug Policy in the United States: The impact of reading Alexander’s ‘The New Jim Crow'”
(4) Dr. Penny Harris: “An Intergenerational Choir: Combating the Stigma of Alzheimer’s disease and Building Connections with College Students and People Living with Dementia and Their Family Members”

WED 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session Q
PANEL: White Culture

Moderator: Dr. Thea Ford, Education
Dolan Science Center, A203

WED 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session R
Individual Paper Session

Moderator: Dr. Deniz Durmus, Philosophy
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room
(1) Dr. Nathan Gehlert: “Impacts of Service Learning on Civic Attitudes and Skills” (with student participants)
(2) Dr. Martha Pereszlenyi-Pinter: “On Your Toes in Tutus and Tights! ‘Dancing with the [French] Stars,’ from Louis XIV to Today”
(3) Dr. Simran Kahai and Victoria Hume: “Model for Determinants of Corruption”

WED 6:30-7:45 p.m. Special Event
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room
Early College Panel Session
Moderator: Dr. Mark Storz, Education and School Psychology
(1) Tamia Jackson: “The Correlation Between Baby Blues and The Severity of Postpartum Depression”
(2) Angelique Hale: “The Impact that Sleep Deprivation Has on Implicit and Explicit Memory”
(3) Yidiayah S. Box: “The Correlation Between Emotional Disorders and Teen Obesity”

WED 7:30 p.m. Public Lecture
“Art, Ritual, and Sacred Space on the Silk Road”
Presented by Professor Qiang Ning
Sponsored by the Walter and Mary Tuohy Chair of Interreligious Studies
Dolan Science Center, Donahue Auditorium

 

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Thursday, April 14, 2016

All Week: Celebrate the Art Exhibit
Grasselli Library, Tully Atrium & Gallery

All Week: Mock Wall Presentation
Sponsored by Students for Social Justice
In front of Grasselli Libary and the Lombardo Student Center

THU 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session S
Individual Paper Session

Moderator: Dr. Medora Barnes, Sociology & Criminology
Dolan Science Center, A202
(1) Matthew Hribar: “The Expression of Love Within Undergraduates”
(2) Emily Uterhark: “Intertwined: Vera Brittain’s approach to feminism and pacifism”

THU 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session T
PANEL: Case Studies: Religion, Terrorism, and Culture Wars, Panel 1 of 2

Moderator: Michele Stopera Freyhauf, Theology & Religious Studies
Dolan Science Center, A203
(1) Josefina Moreno: “Preserving Pre-Colombian Artifacts and Cultural Heritage in Colombia”
(2) Monica Angelotti: “The Effects of Occupation on the Cultural and Religious Identity of Palestine”
(3) Olivia Kastelic: “War, terror, and the threat of antiquities in Cambodia”
(4) Patrick Hackett: “Tibet: A Fading Light”

THU 2-3:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session U
OPEN

Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room

THU 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session V
Individual Paper Session
Moderator: Dr. Karen Gygli, Russert Department of Communication & Theatre Arts
Dolan Science Center, A202
(1) Alexya Perez: “Potential Effects for Establishing a Common Monetary Union between CARICOM” MOVED TO SESSION AA THU 5:00 PM
(2) Dr. Tamba Nlandu: “On the Concept of Fair Competition in Today’s European Soccer Leagues”
(3) Robert Haas: “Shirley Jackson’s ‘The Tooth’: Dentistry as Horror, the Imagination as a Shield”

THU 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session W
PANEL: Case Studies: Religion, Terrorism, and Culture Wars, Panel 2 of 2

Moderator: Michele Stopera Freyhauf, Theology & Religious Studies
Dolan Science Center, A203
(1) Bryant Stone: “The Psychological Implications of Cultural Cleansing While Living Under a Totalitarian Regime”
(2) Benjamin Gebhardt: “The Welsh, Argentina, and The Hybridization of Cultural Identity”
(3) Christopher Titchenell: ”Cultural Conflict in China: A Critical Analysis of Culture, Religion, and Terror in the Xinjiang Territory”

THU 3:30-4:45 p.m. Paper/Panel Session X
PANEL: Putting Creativity into Your Course
Moderator: Dr. Jackie Schmidt, Russert Department of Communication & Theatre Arts, Director of the Entrepreneurship Minor, Project Manager of the Burton D. Morgan Grant
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room
Panelists: Keith Nagy, Drs. Alison Dachner, Pamela Mason, Tom Bonda, Nancy Taylor, Jerry Weinstein

THU 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session Y
PANEL: Senior Spotlight: Arrupe Scholars Program

Moderator: Dr. Malia McAndrew, History, and Arrupe Director
Dolan Science Center, A202
Panelists: Sarah Spangenburg, Daniel Mascio, Emily Mordini, Patrick Vecellio

THU 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session Z
PANEL: No Place like Home for the Anglo-Saxons

Moderator: Dr. Emily Butler, English
Dolan Science Center, A203
(1) Kathrine Statham: “Meadhall of the Mind: The Importance of the Hall and Community in Anglo-Saxon England”
(2) Christopher Kane: “Redeeming the Old English Daniel”
(3) Maria Clare McKeating: “A Reading of Alcuin’s ‘O Mea Cella'”
(4) Darcy Egan: “‘Floating spirits’ – The Physical/Spiritual Crux of The Wanderer (ll. 45-72)”

THU 5-6:15 p.m. Paper/Panel Session AA
PANEL: EC 499 Presentations

Moderator: Dr. Lindsay Calkins, Economics & Finance
Dolan Science Center, O’Connell Reading Room
(1) Alec Kopsick: “The Decline of Money Velocity in the U.S. Economy”
(2) Judy Mualem: “The Economics Perspective of Gene Patents: Myriad Genetics Case Study”
(3) Jordan de Bord: “Determinants of Demand for Mercedes–Benz”
(4) Victoria Hume: “The Determinants of Corruption”
(5) Alexya Perez: “Potential Effects for Establishing a Common Monetary Union between CARICOM”

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Friday, April 15, 2016

All Week: Celebrate the Art Exhibit
Grasselli Library, Tully Atrium & Gallery

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