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Evaluating Web-Based Assessment using Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice (PC)
Grant Sutliff* and Nick Bayda, Undergraduates; Dr. Daniel Reynolds, Department of Education and School Psychology, JCU

Virtual learning environments have become a viable education alternative. Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice describe the skills that educators should develop in their students. Web-based assessment is a general term that involves computer application and internet usage in the classroom assessment process. In this study, we analyze how popular educational websites such as Khan Academy, Study Island, Brilliant, and WebAssign align with the Common Core State Standards for mathematical practice when assessing their users. Results show that standards 1, 3, and 7 are assessed very well, while the other standards are lacking. Implications of this research state that there is a need for teachers to spend more time assessing certain standards in the classroom. This research was funded by the Colleran-Weaver Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship.



Physical Fitness Characteristics And The Candidate Physical Ability Test (CPAT) (PC)
Reilly Girardot*, Undergraduate; Mr. Jacob Beiting, Exercise Science and Sports Studies, JCU; Dr. Jacquelyn Zera, Exercise Science and Sports Studies, JCU

The Candidate Physical Ability Test (CPAT) is a firefighting-task specific screening test for firefighter candidates. Ten healthy male firefighters (age= 31.8 ± 11.3; Body Mass Index (BMI)= 30.0 ± 4.3; percent body fat (%BF)= 20.4 ± 7.1; VO2max (ml·kg·min-1) = 42.1 ± 6.9) completed a comprehensive fitness assessment. Additionally, each firefighter completed a CPAT, comprised of eight events with total time (sec) as a primary outcome. Pearson correlations were used to determine the associations between CPAT time (sec) and physical fitness characteristics. Data revealed significant moderate correlations between CPAT time (sec) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) (r=0.668; p= 0.049), and the push-up test (r=-0.647; p=0.043). Additionally, the association between CPAT time (sec) and %BF (r=0.608; p=0.082), and the sit and reach test (r=-0.625; p=0.053) approached significance. Results of the current investigation suggest that increased upper body strength and decreased body composition are associated with improved performance on the CPAT.



Examining the Relationship Between Group and Solitary Exercise on Depression
Alexis De Matteis*, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Dr. Denise Ben-Porath, Department of Psychology, JCU

I created a survey to examine the relationship between group and solitary on depression. It was IRB approved. In my survey, I first assessed each JCU undergraduate student using the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Then I used questions about their exercise routines. I asked questions about sports teams, group fitness classes, solo exercise to determine what each participant was involved in. My sponsor and I are beginning to analyze the data from 184 participants, but I would hypothesize that those involved in exercise will have lower depression/anxiety scores than those not involved in exercise. I would also think that the participants involved in group exercise would have lower depression/anxiety scores than those involved in solo exercise. I will present my paper and poster with my findings at the Celebration of Scholarship and the MPA in Chicago in April.



Evaluation of Various Larvicides in the Prevention of West Nile Virus in Cuyahoga County

Allyson Brahler*, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Joe Lynch, Sanitarian Program Manager Mosquito & Nuisance, Cuyahoga County Board of Public Health

Public health is an important field as officials are able to implement policies and procedures that reduce the risk of disease. Particularly threatening diseases to human health are those that are vectorborne. Many vectorborne pathogens are transmitted by mosquitoes, demonstrating the need for mosquito control. Mosquito control methods include the application of various larvicide products, which target the larval stage of mosquito development and prevent the mosquitoes from becoming biting adults capable of disease transmission. Three larvicide products were studied and evaluated for effectiveness in killing larvae and preventing disease, principally West Nile virus. The products tested were Summit™ B.t.i Granules, Natular™ DT, and Fourstar® 45 Day Microbial Briquets, and it was determined that each were effective methods for mosquito control when used according to their product instructions. These products reduce the risk for acquiring disease transmitted by mosquitoes with low environmental impacts. All can be considered for vector control.



An Analysis of the Effectiveness and Impact of Blockchain Technology and Sentiment Analysis as a Solution to Misinformation

Breanna Garan*, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Dr. Angela Canda, Department of Psychology, JCU; Dr. Elena Manilich and Dr. Linda Seiter, Mathematics and Computer Science, JCU

In today’s fast paced world of technology with access to real-time news and instant information, it is no surprise that misinformation has become a growing issue. Many solutions to this problem have been presented, including the uses of Sentiment Analysis or Blockchain Technology. Both of these solutions have fallen short of providing an effective system to combat this problem, however, by combining these two technologies, each provides advantages that the other lacks on its own. Although efficiency is increased, there remain possible negative results of this method including environmental impacts. Further work must be done before any conclusions as to if the effectiveness and benefits surpass the disadvantages.



The Effects of Blockchain on the Auditing Profession

Rachel Kerling*, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Dr. Mark Sheldon, Department of Accountancy, JCU

Since its original design appeared in 2008, different iterations of blockchain have been developed, adapted, and implemented by firms, focusing primarily on how to initiate, process, and record different types of transactions. Some advocates have made the claim that the blockchain ledger is immutable. While this claim is not entirely accurate, unauthorized changes to the blockchain ledger are difficult to execute, and thus blockchain represents a new solution to securely recording and storing data, including data used to generate financial statements. It is crucial that auditors be prepared to encounter blockchain in client environments, and at the same time determine how to leverage its secure ledger to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of audits. In this study, I perform a review of the current literature on blockchain in the auditing environment, and perform interviews with business professionals, to provide a perspective on how auditors are being affected by blockchain technology.



A Proposed Software Development Strategy for Simulated Swarm Augmentation

Ryan Houghtaling*, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Dr. Daniel Palmer, Mathematics and Computer Science, JCU

Swarm intelligence systems rely upon the premise that when comparing a single complex agent with a group of simpler agents, the latter can accomplish certain tasks with increased efficiency, accuracy, and/or durability. However, the process of developing the software to underlie such a swarm that is uniquely tailored to a given task is often both time consuming and error prone. The aim of this project is to reduce this overhead by demonstrating a streamlined, deterministic approach through which one can repeatedly iterate on the behavior of an established swarm to produce the desired outcome. Our standardized pathway is designed to allow for smooth, straightforward, successful swarm development at a faster and steadier pace, no matter the complexity of the swarm’s goal. By encouraging developers to consider and then realize each necessary behavior separately, it enables them to perfect each individually before they are integrated together, ensuring the swarm’s eventual success.



The Hippocratic Oath: It’s All Greek to Me! A Look at How The Father of Medicine Influenced the Medical Field Then and Now (PC)

Maureen Reilly*, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Dr. Kristin Ehrhardt, Classical and Modern Languages and Cultures, JCU; Dr. Angela Canda, Department of Psychology, JCU

Nearly all physicians around the world take swear an oath at the beginning of their practice to uphold certain standards, follow certain guidelines, and be held accountable in a certain way. Most commonly people will say some form of the Hippocratic Oath. The Hippocratic Oath is attributed to the great philosopher and physician Hippocrates of Kos who is often claimed to be “the father of medicine”. Because of his influence on modern medicine ethics, practices, and medical terms and in-depth look at one of Hippocrates’ most famous accredited works will give an insight to the roots of western medicine and its values in the Hellenistic world. In order to understand modern medical practices and philosophies, it is necessary to look at the ancient practices from which they stem and how the language used then reflected the values of society at the time as the language of the modern oath reflects the values of our world today.



Diagnosis: Leadership. A Look at What Leaders in the Medical Field Look Like (PC)

Maureen Reilly*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

Great leaders are found in every field in the world. Doctors especially are looked to as leaders in the health world, helping everyday people achieve their health goals. In the medical field, strong, comprehensive leadership is a requirement as doctors interact with patients and other medical professionals in the office. As the world of medicine is changing and evolving, consistent and compassionate leadership must be a constant. By interviewing 5 different doctors who are leaders at the national, state, and local level, and we are able to gain insight on what a successful style of leadership looks like in the medical field.



Insertion of Human NCAPD3 cDNA into a Tetracycline-Inducible Expression Plasmid using DNA Recombination Technology (PC)

Patrick Jungling* and Samuel Heaton, Undergraduates; Dr. Christine McDonald and Dr. Michelle Longworth, Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation; Dr. Erin E. Johnson, Department of Biology, JCU

Condensin II is a multi-subunit protein complex in the nucleus essential for DNA organization and stability. Recent work from the Longworth lab demonstrated that condensin II subunits, such as NCAPD3, also exist in the cytoplasm where they regulate mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress responses. The present study utilized DNA recombination to insert NCAPD3 cDNA into a plasmid containing a tetracycline repressor binding site. This allows for expression of NCAPD3 only in the presence of tetracycline. Therefore, NCAPD3 levels can be manipulated in a predictable manner in mammalian cells. Dysfunction of condensin II is associated with cancer, microcephaly, and inflammatory bowel disease; therefore molecular tools that permit the manipulation of NCAPD3 expression will increase our understanding of the role of NCAPD3 in human disease. This research was part of the JCU-SURF program supported by the Colleran-Weaver Fund, and Department of Defense grant PR181846 (CM).



Cells Expressing Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Support Globin Gene Expression: Implications in Cancer Cells

Alexandra Taylor*, Undergraduate; Dr. Arnab Ghosh, Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute; Dr. Dennis Stuehr, Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute

Hemeproteins are essential for life and heme insertion is an essential step in their maturation. Recent studies on chaperon Hsp90 revealed that it drives functional heme insertion in vital hemeproteins such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), hemoglobin beta/gamma (Hb-β/γ) and myoglobin (Mb). Since recent studies have implicated Hb-β expression drives growth and promotes cell survival in cancer cells, we investigated whether such globin expression is dependent on sGC expression in cancer cells. Our results revealed that sGC expression is needed to support Hb/Mb expression and sGC or NOS-sGC expression correlates with Hb/Mb expression. These newer gene correlations between NOS-sGC-Hb-β/Mb may aid in better drug designing to hinder the growth of these cancer cells. These recent finds in gene expression patterns in breast, prostate, and lung cancer cells can further open new avenues in anti-cancer research. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health.



Effects of Immune System Modulation on Retinal Regeneration in Zebrafish

Sereen Nasrallah*, Undergraduate; Dr. Brian Perkins, Associate Staff, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation; Dr. Joseph Fogerty, Research Associate, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation; Dr. Helen Murphy and Dr. Cyrilla Wideman, Neuroscience Program, JCU

Leber Congenital Amaurosis, a common type of blindness among children, is a form of retinal degeneration that leads to early blindness caused by a mutation on the centrosomal protein 290 gene (CEP290). Examining the role of this gene and its role in retinal regeneration can help to reverse the damage done in the retina. In the current study, an immunosuppressive drug, Pexidartinib, was used to decrease the number of immune cells in the retina to determine if this intervention would trigger an increase in proliferating cells in the retina and therefore, activate a regeneration process which was assessed through immunohistochemical staining and imaging. There was no significant difference among proliferating cells in the nuclear layers between heterozygous (HT) and homozygous (HO) cep290 zebrafish treated with PLX3397 and untreated HT and HO cep290 zebrafish. Thus, there were no proliferative cells in the retina, and retinal regeneration had not occurred.



The Influence of Berberine on Spatial Working Memory and Anxiety in Rats

Diana Rios Guerrero*, Undergraduate; Dr. Helen Murphy and Dr. Cyrilla Wideman, Neuroscience Program, JCU

Historically, berberine has been around for a long time and currently is the subject of study for its beneficial effects as an aid in addressing respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cognitive performance. The present study explored the influence of berberine on spatial working memory and anxiety in control and experimental rats. Spatial working memory was determined through the use of the Morris Water Maze (MWM) comparing the difference between speed of reaching a platform during a sample trial and a test trial. Anxiety was assessed at the start of the MWM test trial. Results indicated a significant performance improvement over time for both groups in the MWM, with the experimental group exhibiting a marked increase in implementation within the first week. Anxiety was significantly greater in experimental animals. Berberine does show promise as a cognitive enhancer; however, a possible undesirable side effect may be an increase in anxiety level.



Role of glutathione and reactive oxygen species on caspase-3 activation: A study with the kinase inhibitor staurosporine (PC)

Aysenur Musaogullari*, Undergraduate; Alysia Mandato, Graduate Student, University of Pittsburgh; Dr. Yuh-Cherng Chai, Department of Chemistry, JCU

Oxidative stress is known to contribute to the progression of apoptosis. Staurosporine is a broad-spectrum inducer of apoptosis, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. The goal of the present work was to elucidate the role of glutathione and reactive oxygen species in the execution of staurosporine-induced apoptosis. HeLa cells were treated with staurosporine at 1 μM for up to 4 h. The concentration of glutathione, generation of reactive oxygen species, and activation of caspase-3 were measured. The introduction of staurosporine significantly decreased the concentration of cellular glutathione and increased the presence of reactive oxygen species after 3 h. These findings were concurrent with the activation of caspase-3. Interestingly, pre-treatment of cells with N-acetyl cysteine, a precursor of glutathione, and a thiol antioxidant, failed to block the depletion of glutathione, generation of reactive oxygen species, and activation of caspase-3. Collectively, these results suggest that the cellular redox status may be one of the critical factors of the apoptotic pathway leading to caspase-3 activation by staurosporine.



Deciphering the molecular signaling controlling recruitment of neuroprotective skull bone marrow derived myeloid cells

Brian Kistler*, Undergraduate; Natalie Frederick, PhD, Research Fellow, Lerner Research Institute; Dr. Antoine Louveau, Assistant Staff, Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute

The brain is an immune privileged organ where immune cells are observed in neurological disorders. The surrounding of the brain, the meninges, however are rich in immune cells under physiological conditions. Routes of migration of immune cells remain poorly understood. Recent studies suggested that immune cells could migrate directly from the meninges to the brain. We identified that CD49a, an integrin highly expressed in meningeal macrophages, mediates the accumulation of myeloid cells in both the meninges and brain. Single-cell RNA sequencing of meningeal macrophages after CD49a blockade demonstrated the up-regulation of CCL3/CCL4 and CXCL2, three major chemokines for myeloid cell recruitment. We hypothesized that the recruitment of monocytes/neutrophils induced by anti-CD49a is mediated by the release of those chemokines. Using chemokine-neutralizing antibodies, we found that single chemokine blockade was insufficient to prevent parenchymal myeloid cell accumulation suggesting that other mechanisms are controlling myeloid cell migration into the brain parenchyma.



I'm beginning to doubt what I learned in Organic Chemistry - Which is more stable: a tertiary or benzylic carbocation?

Brian Kistler*, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Dr. Michael Nichols, Department of Chemistry, JCU

Simple HX acid alkene addition occurs with a positively charged carbocation intermediate. The Markovnikov rule states that the acidic proton will add to the carbon of the alkene with the most hydrogens attached, usually forming the more stable carbocation intermediate. Resonance structure formation and inductive effects of carbon neighbors mainly influence carbocation stability. For example, tertiary carbocations, having three carbon neighbors, and benzylic carbocations, forming resonance structures with a benzene ring, are both relatively stable. This begs the question of which carbocation is more stable. To determine this, 2-methyl-1-phenyl-1-propene was chosen for its ability to form either a tertiary or benzylic carbocation when reacted with H+. The alkene underwent simple acid addition using deuterium chloride (DCl) or deuterium bromide (DBr); products were analyzed using proton, carbon, and deuterium NMR spectra. Computer modeling of the carbocations was also used to determine carbocation stability. The results of these studies will be presented.



Antamoy of the Mustelus Canis (PC)
Nour Altabbaa*, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Crista Kieley, University of New England; Dr. Christopher Sheil, Department of Biology, JCU

The Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is the common species of shark used in classes to demonstrate basic vertebrate anatomy. Because this species has been overharvested and is unavailable, the Dusky Smooth Hound (Mustelus canis) is now being sold; unfortunately, dissection manuals for the Spiny Dogfish do not match those of the newly-available Smooth Hounds. This project was conducted to develop a dissection guide for Mustelus canis, which has unique anatomy. Dissections were conducted to document internal anatomy (e.g., arteries and veins). Sketches were made by hand and illustrations were inked and painted; Final labeling and editing of digital versions of these figures were prepared in Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator, to prepare figures that can be used as dissection guides for students in anatomy classes. This work was supported by the Colleran-Weaver Fellowship Program.



The Influence of Microbial Metabolite Protocatechuic Acid (PCA) on Macrophage Gene Expression and the Role of PPAR gamma (PC)

Karlee Schultz*, Undergraduate; Lucas J. Osborn, Graduate Student, Department of Molecular Medicine, Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic; Dr. Isabel Johnston, Research Fellow, Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Science, Cleveland Clinic; Dr. Jan Claesen, Assistant Staff, Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Sciences, Lerner Research Institute Cleveland Clinic

Metabolic syndrome is a global health concern precipitated by nutrient excess and obesity. Following long-term caloric excess, macrophages are recruited to adipose tissue resulting in chronic, low-grade inflammation. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) play a role in regulating the expression of many gene networks that impact this metabolic inflammation. The goal of this study was to analyze the gene expression of macrophages treated with protocatechuic acid (PCA), a microbial metabolite that acts as a natural PPAR agonist. In this study, murine macrophages were polarized to the M1 phenotype using lipopolysaccharide and treated with a physiologically relevant concentration of PCA. Following treatment, mRNA was isolated and analyzed using RT-qPCR to determine gene expression changes. Strikingly, PCA significantly attenuated the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Overall, our findings suggest the microbial metabolite and natural PPAR agonist PCA may be beneficial to metabolic function in macrophages. Funded by the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute.



Short-term Effects of GABA Supplementation in Rats

Kledio Janku*, Undergraduate; Dr. Helen Murphy and Dr. Cyrilla Wideman, Neuroscience Program, JCU

GABA supplement brands claim that their product is beneficial for memory and relaxation due to its influence on the brain. In the present study, the effects of a 25-day period of daily synthetically produced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplementation was examined on a group of experimental rats vs control rats. Learning and spatial working memory were assessed using the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Anxiety, body weight, food intake, water intake, blood glucose levels, adiposity, and sleep/wake circadian activity were examined as well. Experimental rats showed no greater learning or memory than control rats. Although not significant, experimental animals demonstrated a strong trend toward decreased anxiety. There was no significant difference in body weight, food intake, water intake, blood glucose levels, adiposity, and sleep/wake circadian activity. Even though the results do not support the claim that short-term oral GABA supplementation enhances memory, this study suggests that GABA supplementation may reduce anxiety.



An Assessment of the Potential Therapeutic Use of CBD Oil for Oxidative Stress-Induced Anxiety in Hydrogen Peroxide Treated Rats

Kelly Dvorsky*, Undergraduate; Dr. Helen Murphy and Dr. Cyrilla Wideman, Neuroscience Program, JCU

The antioxidant properties of cannabidiol (CBD) oils are important to understand, as they are proposed to have the potential to reduce oxidative stress in the body and further limit physical and mental health ailments. Due to the possible link between oxidative stress and anxiety, it was the goal of this experiment to induce oxidative stress and anxiety in two groups of rats while attempting to alleviate this physiological stress and anxiety in one of these groups using CBD oil. Upon completion of the experiment, it was found that the rats receiving the CBD product experienced a greater amount of oxidative stress than those who did not. Furthermore, this stress was not seen to be linked with increased anxiety levels. Overall, oxidative stress may not be a direct cause of anxiety, and the use of CBD oils may cause unwanted and potentially harmful effects. This research supports the FDA claim that there is not sufficient scientific research and data to claim that hemp CBD oil is safe for human use.



A possible role for Tao in regulating BMP receptor trafficking at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila melanogaster (PC)

Salmman Ahmed*, Madison Juszczak, and Lauren Phillip, Undergraduates; Dr. Pamela Vanderzalm, Department of Biology, JCU

The proper development of synapses between neurons and their targets is paramount for proper function. Any problems could lead to the possibility of disease, which highlights the importance of knowing how normal development proceeds. The Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway helps control neuromuscular junction (NMJ) development during larval growth of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies). This connection between neuron and muscle is similar to connections in the mammalian brain, so it is used as a model system. Tao protein is an important inhibitor of the BMP pathway during NMJ development, although its precise mechanism of action is not understood. One hypothesis is that Tao plays a role in the endocytosis or trafficking of BMP receptors. These receptors are known to be endocytosed at the synaptic terminal and transported along the axon back to the soma. Once there, they activate the transcription factor Mad via phosphorylation which then activates transcription of genes that control synaptic growth. My project investigates the possible role for Tao in this trafficking process.



Two possible synaptic cleft-resident proteins are required for synapse organization and function at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila melanogaster (PC)

Kendall Cook* and Cameron Rodriguez, Undergraduates; Dr. Pamela Vanderzalm, Department of Biology, JCU; Nova Qi, Graduate Student, and Dr. Heather Broihier, Associate Profess, Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University; Dr. James Ashley, Staff Scientist, and Dr. Robert Carrillo, Assistant Professor, University of Chicago

The nervous system is responsible for coordinating functions of the body by sending electrical and chemical signals between neurons. Connections between neurons that allow for this communication to occur are known as synapses, which are formed by a process called synaptogenesis. By using a genetic model organism such as the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we can learn more about genes required for the formation and function of synapses and know that this will apply to synaptogenesis in humans. We hypothesized that two proteins, SPARC and Lambik, are important in the organization of synapses. The number of synapses in flies with a knockdown of these specific proteins varied from the wild-type fly. To determine if the synapses in SPARC and Lambik knockdown flies are functional, a locomotion analysis will be conducted. If the correct number of synapses is critical for proper function, our prediction is that locomotion will be disrupted.



Development of Cell-Based Assays for Detecting ISGF3 Modulation (PC)

Kasey Murton*, Undergraduate; Dr. Erin Johnson, Department of Biology, JCU; Dr. Mary K. Doud, Department of Chemistry, JCU

The innate immune system defends a host from infection by recognizing and responding to pathogens immediately upon detection. Transcription factors that are activated during infection are promising yet underutilized targets for developing new therapeutics. The ISGF3 transcription factor complex, composed of STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9 proteins, is one such target. Previous work from our group has identified two small organic molecules as potential activators of ISGF3. However, the mechanism by which these compounds exert a biological effect has not been established. The goal of this work was to develop methods by which to evaluate putative modulators of ISGF3. We have developed cell-based reporter assays that respond to both exogenous and endogenous activation. These assays will be used in future studies to compare small molecule activators and inhibitors of ISGF3. This work was funded by the Colleran-Weaver Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship.



The role of the HSP90 co-chaperone SUGT1 in GLP-1/Notch signaling and germline development of C. elegans

Jonathan Bastick*, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Dr. James Lissemore, Department of Biology, JCU

The GLP-1/Notch signaling pathway functions in all multicellular animals. Mutations affecting pathway components have been linked to developmental and neurological disorders and to various cancers. Preliminary data suggest that the HSP-90 co-chaperone SUGT1, involved in protein folding and degradation, has a strong genetic interaction with GLP-1/Notch signaling in the germline of C. elegans. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down (reduce) expression of SUGT1 in a C. elegans mutant strain with reduced GLP-1/Notch signaling and determined brood size, embryonic/larval lethality, and larval abnormality. Interestingly, a majority of the glp-1 mutant worms exposed to SUGT1 RNAi were sterile. Following SUGT1 knockdown, adult worms were also examined under differential interference contrast (DIC) and fluorescence microscopy for germline abnormalities. glp-1 mutant worms with reduced SUGT1 expression showed multiple germline defects consistent with the observed sterility. These results strongly suggest that SUGT1 is required for GLP-1/Notch signaling in the C. elegans germline.



Role of circadian clock gene in retinal angiogenesis (PC)

Trevor Cubra*, Undergraduate; Dr. Sujata Rao and Dr. Onkar Sawant, Rebecca Fuller, Joshua Gallop, Kenya Wilcots, and Olivia Zucaro, Opthalmic Research, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation

Circadian clock genes Bmal1 and Per2 are required for angiogenesis of endothelial cells. Inducible Pdgf-iCreER transgenic mice were utilized to conditionally knock out Bmal1 and Per2 from vascular endothelial cells (VECs). For pathological neovascularization, RPE-Bruch’s membrane was ruptured in adult mice using diode laser and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesion were imaged using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA) on day 7, 14, and 21 post injury. In this CNV model, loss of Bmal1 resulted in significant decreases in both lesion volume and vascular leakage, indicating reduced neovascularization. In contrast, Per2 mutants show significant increase in the lesion volume and vascular leakage. These data suggest circadian clock has a role in the endothelial cells in the later phase of the retinal vasculature. Our results demonstrate potential involvement of the circadian system in macular degeneration, retinopathy, and other age-related diseases.



Expression, Purification, Functional Characterization, and Inhibition of Human Aspartate Transcarbamoylase  (PC)

Sally Al-Qaraghuli * and Collen Murphy, Undergraduates, Honors Program; Dr. Christine McDonald, Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation; Dr. Mary Kathryn Doud and Dr. Erin E. Johnson, Department of Biology, JCU

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase/aspartate transcarbamoylase/dihydroorotase (CAD), is a multisubunit enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine synthesis. CAD also binds to and inhibits the intracellular immune sensor, NOD2. N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA) is a small molecule that targets the aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) domain of CAD and enhances NOD2 activity. The present study aimed to purify the ATCase domain of CAD to test novel compounds that could potentially disrupt the CAD/NOD2 interaction but still allow for pyrimidine synthesis to reduce cellular toxicity from pyrimidine starvation. A plasmid encoding His-tagged human ATCase was purified and used for protein expression in bacteria. Cobalt purification columns were utilized to isolate His-tagged ATCase from bacterial lysates. Immunoblotting was employed to confirm the column eluate contained purified ATCase. This process was successful and is currently being scaled up to produce enough protein to screen novel ATCase binding compounds. This research was supported by the Department of Defense grant PR181846 (CM).



The Pen-pal Exchange Program (PC)

Sally Al-Qaraghuli*, Undergraduate; Dr. Tracy Masterson, Department of Psychology, JCU

The Pen-pal is an exchange program linked with an Adolescent Development (PS 262) course at John Carroll University and the Maharat Mentorship Program in Basrah, Iraq. The aim of this partnership is to increase exchanges between youth in the U.S. and the Middle East and allow both groups to view adolescents through the lens of diversity, globalization, and cultural sensitivity and acceptance. Pre and post-data were collected from participants, emphasizing expectations, preconceived stereotypes of the "other" group, and student goals. As a consequence of participating in the exchange program, American participants denoted statistically significant reductions in emotional prejudice (t(64) = 21.928, p < .000). Surprisingly, no significant differences were found in the mean difference between pre- and post scores on the Social Distance Questionnaire (t(64)= .124, p = .904) or the Openness to Diversity and Challenge Scale (t(64) = 0, p = 1.000). Funded by the Colleran-Weaver scholarship.



Mental Health First Aid

Joseph Rich*, Sereen Nasrallah, Corbyn Martz, Patrick McGuire, and Claire Tirpak, Undergraduates; Sydnia De Franco, Director of Arrupe Scholars Program; Jaime Greenwolf, Coordinator of Student Wellness, JCU.

As part of our capstone advocacy project for Arrupe, we created a multi-step campaign to help the JCU community view mental health in the same way they already view physical health. Our campaign consisted of a social media takeover as well as a day of training in mental health first aid.



Oral Healthcare Access in Latin America (PC)

Vincenzo Giovannitti*, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Dr. Colin Swearingen, Department of Political Science, JCU

Poverty is a root concern for the many issues that affect the human experience and quality of life. Many South American countries are deemed low- and middle- income countries. One country in particular is Peru, especially in its rural, indigenous populations. To further understand the severity of and seek out solutions for this crisis of rural oral health in Peru, it is necessary to approach it from 4 perspectives. They are as follows: 1) Factors Contributing to Poverty in South America in General, 2) Factors Contributing to Poverty in Specifically Peru and Peru’s State of Healthcare, 3) Poverty’s Effect on Oral Health, and 4) a Call to Action Using Catholic Social Teaching AND Sustainable Action in my Career in Dentistry.



Leadership Exemplified in Dentistry (PC)

Vincenzo Giovannitti*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

In order to better define leadership in the field of dentistry and understand my own personal leadership style, a series of interviews of leaders in dentistry were conducted and then analyzed. Interviews were conducted of dental leaders at the local, regional, state, and national levels to show the different levels of leadership and how it applies to every day challenges, obstacles, and decision making. Examples of leaders that were interviewed are Dr. Lisa Babb, DMD, a local orthodontist of a newer practice and Dr. Chad Gehani, DDS, the President of the American Dental Association, at the national level.



Quantifying extinction properties of magnetic nanoparticles in a Magneto- Optical Device (PC)

Amanda McGreer* and Kyle Blasinsky, Undergraduates; Dr. Robert Deissler, CWRU; and Dr. Danielle Kara, JCU

The clinical success of malaria detection with our Magneto-Optical Device (“MOD”) motivates research into expanded applications of the device. The ultimate goal of this research is to attach magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to peptides and cells in a biopsy or cytology sample and use the MOD for cancer detection. The magnetic and optical behavior of Protein A coated Fe2O3 MNPs are studied by using MOD. We verified that the extinction properties of these MNPs depend on the orientation of the particle relative to the polarization of light, making the MNPs detectable by the MOD. We also observed the MNP size affects the time dependence of light extinction in the MOD which will be useful in distinguishing the free MNPs and those attached to cancer cells. This research was part of the SURF Program and funded by the Colleran-Weaver Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship Endowment.



Quantifying Optical Properties of Hemozoin for the Expanded Application of a Magneto-Optical Device (PC)

Kyle Blasinsky*, Amanda McGreer, Jessica Thomas, and Ian Glass, Undergraduates, Honors Program; Dr. Robert Deissler, Research Assistant, Dr. Robert Brown, Distinguished University Professor and Institute Professor, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University; Dr. Danielle Kara, Department of Physics, JCU

Hemozoin crystals are the basis of a new approach for efficient, cost-effective malaria detection. Clinical success of malaria detection with a magneto-optical device (MOD) motivates quantification of the optical interactions forming the basis for this detection mechanism. The MOD is used to measure the intensity of polarized light transmitted through a sample of hemozoin suspended in phosphate-buffered saline, subject to a magnetic field (B) that can be turned on and off. According to Beer’s law, ratios of transmitted light with B on and off as a function of hemozoin concentration were related to change in cross-sectional absorption (Δσ=σ, B on - σ, B off), an important property for quantifying optical interactions. Quantification of Δσ informs our understanding of the magneto-optical properties of hemozoin, which advances malaria detection and expands potential applications for the MOD. This research was supported by the John Carroll Physics Summer Research Fund as well as the Colleran-Weaver Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship Endowment.



Methods Development for Total Glucosinolate Assay

Zachary Litwinowicz, Undergraduate; Dr. Rebecca Drenovsly and Dr. Kal Tuominen, Department of Biology, JCU

Gypsum soils are high in calcium sulfate dihydrate, and the high sulfur levels create a harsh environment for plants. Mustards that grow on gypsum do not show characteristics present in many other gypsum-tolerant species. However, this family is known to produce glucosinolates, a unique class of sulfur-containing defense chemicals. We hypothesize that mustards use these chemicals as a sink to avoid sulfur toxicity. This project involves developing an improved method for total glucosinolate quantification to answer this question. The variables we changed included the temperature of extraction, removal of the extraction solvent, use of alternate separation columns, and the addition of myrosinase as a negative control. The results suggest that room temperature extraction and an alternate negative control method can be used as a more efficient and effective procedure. We thank the JCU Colleran-Weaver SURF program, American Philosophical Society, and Native Plant Society of New Mexico for funding.



Gypsum Soils: Unique and Globally Distributed, but Understudied

Alyssa Rice*, Undergraduate; Dr. Rebecca Drenovsky and Dr. Kal Tuominen, Department of Biology, JCU

Gypsum soils are unique and globally distributed. Due to their high sulfur concentration, plants require unique adaptations to survive on them. We hypothesize plants in the mustard family use sulfur-rich glucosinolates as a sulfur sink to support gypsum tolerance. We compared soil chemistry from locations supporting mustard species differing in gypsum tolerance, N.linearifolia, L.alyssoides, and N.camporum. We then tested seed germination in response to soil gypsum availability. Gypsum soils had higher calcium and sulfur and lower pH than non-gypsum soils. N.linearifolia, a gypsum-loving plant, germinated more slowly than other taxa across all soils. Average days to germination was not related to soil type. Future work will document relationships between soil chemistry, plant gypsum tolerance, and glucosinolate accumulation. The Colleran-Weaver Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (AR), Coburn Environmental Fund (AR), Native Plant Society of New Mexico (LKT), American Philosophical Society (LKT), and European Commission Horizon 2020 (RED) supported this research.



Morphology and Photoconductivity Studies of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films (PC)

David Sprenger* and Alec Coutris, Undergraduates; Robert Stanek, Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University; Dr. Clemens Burda, Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University; Dr. Jeffrey S. Dyck, Department of Physics, JCU

Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) is a prospective solar cell material that offers promising results for use in solar cells. Traditional crystalline silicon (c-Si) cells have reached upwards of 25% power conversion efficiency (PCE) after decades of development, whereas MAPbI3 solar cells have reached upwards of 22% PCE after emerging in 2008. After studying the power dependence of MAPbI3 thin film photoconductivity in 2018, the color, or light energy, dependence of the photoconductivity was studied. A high-power LED illuminated the film, and the electrical resistance was measured at a range of light intensities; this was repeated for three other LED colors. The presence of trap-dominated behavior increased with increasing light energy. This information reveals that high-energy light will limit the PCE in MAPbI3 solar cells. In future studies, effort will be directed to limit the amount of unfavorable trap-dominated behavior. This project was supported by the Colleran-Weaver fund.



Photoconductivity in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films (PC)

Alec Coutris* and David Sprenger, Undergraduates; Robert Stanek, Graduate Student, Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Dr. Clemens Burda, Professor, Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University; Dr. Jeffrey Dyck, Professor and Chair, Department of Physics, JCU

In recent years, the demand for commercial solar cells has increased due to a shift towards cleaner, renewable energy. While there already exists a variety of solar cell materials, many of these lack efficiency and are not viable for use in commercial devices. Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) represents a relatively new and understudied photovoltaic perovskite material with higher than average efficiency rates. In studying MAPbI3 and its viability, the material’s response to light must be determined. The electrical conductivity of multiple thin films of MAPbI3 was measured as a function of both light intensity and color. The findings of these measurements are consistent with other reported intensity dependent data while also demonstrating a color dependence, something which requires further study. Financial support was received from the Keresman Fund and the Colleran-Weaver SURF Endowment.



High Throughput Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor Assembly for Rapid Sensor Development

Joshua Hughes*, Undergraduate; Dr. Daniel Sim, Dr. Michael Brothers, Taneha Littlejohn, Dr. Steve Kim, Dr. James Christensen, and Dr. Jennifer Martin, 711th Human Performance Wing, Wright Patterson Air Force Base; Dr. Helen Murphy and Dr. Cyrilla Wideman, Neuroscience Program, JCU.

Due to its effects on human organ systems and its common use in solvents, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) has become a target analyte within the United States Air Force (USAF). Currently, no commercially available sensors can selectively detect IPA, including the industry standard of photoionization detectors. Thus, the development of more advanced sensor platforms is necessary to achieve selectivity. USAF researchers choose carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for their unique electrical properties. Through dielectrophoresis, the functionalization of dispersed CNTs forms field-effect transistors (FET). Selecting polyvinyl pyrrolidone for the dispersive agent creates an IPA selective environment. Combining these two findings, CNT-FETs coated in polyvinyl pyrrolidone selectively detect IPA over similarly structured molecules. This project aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of simultaneous DEP to hasten the development of FETs using the USAF designed electrode platforms. Simultaneous DEP worked and was shown to be repeatable. Preliminary results show a 56% yield of functional CNT-FETs.



Processing ROTSE-III supernova follow-up fields for variable star search (PC)

Isaac Kozak*, Undergraduate; Grant Donnelly, JCU Alumnus; Farley Ferrante and Dr. Robert Kehoe, Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University

Found at an unstable time in their life, variable stars are some of the universe's most useful objects. Their instability causes these stars to change their luminosity over time. This periodic change in luminosity allows us to determine cosmic distances along with other characteristics related to the star, such as its composition, density, and size. But, in order to measure these factors in each star, we first have to find them. In searching, we looked at the overall usefulness and quality of the ROTSE-III’s supernova follow-up fields. The goal was to determine if this specific field would be a sufficient place to look for variable stars. Although the field would have to be cleaned of impurities, we determined that the field could be used in order to find Variable Stars. We also concluded that the photometry system will need to be improved in order to use ROTSE-III’s supernova follow-up fields. Financial support was provided by the Colleran-Weaver Surf Endowment.



An Analysis of Cepheid Variable Stars Using the Robotic Optical Transient Source Experiment (ROTSE III) Data (PC)

Adam Biery* and Isaac Kozak, Undergraduates; Grant Donnelly, JCU Alumnus; Farley Ferrante and Dr. Robert Kehoe, Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University

The Robotic Optical Transient Source Experiment (ROTSE) is a robotic telescope whose main purpose is to capture and study gamma ray bursts from distant collapsing supernovae. However, the large amount of data collected by the ROTSE telescope has also provided significant amounts of information regarding variable stars. Cepheids, a subset of variable stars, have a period of radial pulsation that is closely correlated to the luminosity of the star. This relationship has proven invaluable to the determination of interstellar distance and composition. The main purpose of this project is to discover and study a cepheid variable star. Using ROTSE data, an object was found and studied. The period and magnitude of luminosity was found through computer programs coded throughout the course of the project. The cepheid was then submitted to the American Association of Variable Star Observers. This project was made possible by the Colleran-Weaver SURF Fund.



Leadership in Supply Chain Management/Logistics

Matt Ferraro* Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

My poster will include personal thoughts and experiences from real life business professionals who demonstrate the significance of effective leadership in the Supply Chain Management/logistics profession.



Leaders Trailblazing the World of Entrepreneurship

Julie Whitmore*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

According to the Library of Economics and Liberty, "An entrepreneur is someone who organizes, manages, and assumes the risks of a business or enterprise. An entrepreneur is an agent of change. Entrepreneurship is the process of discovering new ways of combining resources." The meaning of entrepreneurship is so dynamic and changes day to day. Every person can think of an idea, but not everyone is an entrepreneur. At its core, entrepreneurship is seeing an opportunity and turning it a possibility, a reality. My Leadership Scholars Senior Project will focus on 5 leaders in the area of entrepreneurship and small business at the local, state, and national levels. I will conduct thorough interviews on their journeys, businesses, philosophies, successes and failures. My goal is to learn from new people in my community and across the country on what it takes to challenge yourself and pursue what you are passionate about.



An Analysis of Different Leadership Styles in the Field of Ministry

Tomi Korsa*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

This research project analyzes the different types of leadership styles within the field of ministry. Ministers can be both religious and lay people and can take on many different roles. The different types of ministers that were interviewed were an author, campus minister, music minister, and executive director of a social justice network. The thread that holds these ministers together is that they are all dedicated to spiritual mentorship. Although the focus of each leader's ministry is different, they all have a passion for sharing their own spirituality and how it relates to the lives of others. Based on the results of the research, it was found that different leadership styles can be successful in the field of ministry.



Transformational Leadership in Accounting

Megan Dugan*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

Accounting is the language of business. Everyday accountants make decisions that impact lives and solve important problems in society. Interpersonal relationships play an important role in the world of business and the development of one’s career. The world of accounting could not move at the pace it does without dedicated leaders who foster strong relationship and exercise Transformational Leadership. These five interviews explore ways that accounting professionals have used their leadership skills to positively impact the world around them. The interviewees shed light on the personal and authentic side of accounting that is often hidden behind the field’s negative stereotypes, including their long hours and competitive work environment.



Working to Inspire Youth

Jessica DiSalvatore*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

The purpose of this project was to discover what teachers, some of our best leaders and greatest influencers of future generations, are doing to inspire youth of various ages, across many different communities. The leadership style explored in this project is servant leadership. The main goal of servant leaders is to serve others rather than to focus heavily on the financial wellness of themselves and their company or organization. The leaders interviewed shared their teaching experiences within different communities of students, how their experiences have changed over time, and why they feel their positions are important.



Leadership in Human Resources Management

Morgan Staggers*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

Leadership in the Human Resources field is vital. Human Resources historically has been viewed as a clerical role that dealt with filing and pushing paper; however, Human Resources has become a strategic partner to upper-management. With this change in the field comes the need to have leadership that transcends well into an array of scenarios. On this board, one will see various interview comments and stated facts from local, state, and national Human Resources professionals in the area of leadership. This project focused on finding real-life examples of how leadership dictates the success one finds in this field. A common theme that was reiterated from professionals at all levels was the need for leadership amongst not only management, but throughout the organization. From the information gathered in the interviews, the theory that is most explored in this project is Leadership Member Exchange Theory.



Leadership in Healthcare

Mae Eddir*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

Leadership is not only a state of being but rather an inherent character. Leaders are the motivation behind a group of people pushing towards a goal. They see accomplishment before they see the steps to achieve that goal. Failure is not an option, but rather a stepping stone to success. These leaders exhibit confidence in themselves and their decisions. They may not always know the answers but they are willing to take cues from others and formulate the best options possible. In healthcare, these leaders not only manage their healthcare team of doctors and nurses but also consider their patients to be an essential component to their team. These leaders are conscious of each person and make decisions based on what is best for the group to reach their goal. The aim of this study was to interview five leaders currently in healthcare and to determine what makes them such great and effective leaders in their field.



Leadership in Federal Healthcare (PC)

Arika Quinones*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

Leadership in Federal Healthcare is a reflection on different levels of leadership I encountered during my time at the VA. These leaders have taken their fields by storm and changed the face of healthcare.



Leaders in Communication

Gabrielle Sergi*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

Professionals in Marketing and Communication careers utilize leadership in a variety of ways internally and in the community around them. The interviews with five leaders in the Marketing and Communication field throughout the regional, state, and national level, compares the leadership skills needed in diverse work environments and communication audiences. Leadership theories are applied to each interview as well as the Marketing and Communication field as a whole. Lastly, personal leadership style comparisons are made in order to prepare better for future career roles.



Evaluation of Leadership Philosophies of Physician Leaders at Local, State, and National Levels

Marissa George*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

Leadership, a highly desired and sought-after trait, can be defined in a variety of different ways. The term “leadership” holds a different meaning and standards to nearly everyone, depending on the individual’s values, lifestyle, and personal experiences. Leadership itself takes on a variety of different forms and styles that frequently vary depending on the person or people involved, as well as on the situation. What might work in one situation for a particular person or group may not work for another -- making leadership styles and techniques highly adaptable. Throughout this assignment, I have been given the privilege to speak with many leaders within the professional medical field who have been recognized for their leadership initiatives and accomplishments within the field at local, state and national levels. These individuals have taken time out of their busy schedules as physician leaders to discuss with me the responsibilities of their position, how their personal leadership philosophies align with their chosen path within the medical field, what personal qualities that have allowed them to become successful leaders, and where they see the future of leadership within medicine going. The primary purpose of this project is to analyze these conversations and extrapolate on what style of leadership these individuals display most within their careers as medical professionals.



Occupational Therapy: Today's Intervention

Karlie Kehoe*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

This poster includes information gathered from several interviews conducted by Karlie Kehoe. Occupational Therapists at the regional, state, and national levels were asked questions about their profession and how they feel they are making an impact in the community.



Successful Leadership Styles in Business Management (PC)

Matthew Hallgarth* Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

In any and all types of business, successful management of the business relies on effective leadership. However, in order to effectively lead those within the business and to manage it well, one must fully understand himself well enough to know his own leadership style. But successful leadership is not solely contingent on a thorough personal analysis – it is also dependent upon its synergy with the business environment, its impact on the employees, and its effectiveness to convey and meet the goals of the company. In that way, leadership is not a one-size-fits-all model; rather, any style – from transactional and translational to servant, democratic, and more – can be effective in its own way if done correctly. This project looks to analyze the leadership styles of several successful business managers and their impacts on the businesses within which they are utilized.



A Coaching Moment: Team Leadership in Accounting

Olivia Krause*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

In many professional fields, successful leaders many have a common leadership style. Five successful leaders shared their experiences in various roles in accounting and how their leadership style helped them achieve success. Based on these interviews, the value placed on the team was very present. The field of accounting is constantly changing due to changes in regulation and technology. Leaders realize to keep up with constant change they must invest in their workforce.



Marketing Communication: A Leader Today

Maria Borowy*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

Every field consists of leaders who have contributed greatly by setting direction, building an inspiring vision, and guiding those on their team. Each leader’s individualized position requires a specific type of leadership style. To explore the various types of styles used among professionals in the marketing communication based field, five successful leaders at the regional, state, and national level were interviewed. Their responses were analyzed.


Leadership in Literature (PC)

Elizabeth Watson*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

Literature may not be the first subject that comes to one’s mind when considering leadership, but there are countless literary leaders in the country. I seek to investigate the qualities that make a strong leader in the literary world, and to glean what traits should be my focus as an aspiring literature professor and leader. I am reaching out local, state, and national leaders in the world of literature to answer my questions and to help me learn about becoming a thoroughly competent leader.



Journalists Against the World

Olivia Shackleton*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

In the era of fake news, journalists and reporters face harsh criticism from the public and are constantly scrutinized. Due to this, leaders in the field can discuss the struggles and hardships they have faced and give advice to aspiring journalists. Interviewing leaders at different levels, locally and nationally, will inform those in the field about issues plaguing journalists today.



Leadership in the Workplace: Application and Philosophy

Christian Hipsher*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

Leadership and how to be a "good" leader has been a conversation in the business world forever. This poster reflects prominent; local, state, and national business leaders that are successful in their line of work and their take on what aspects are important to leadership and how they apply them to business.



Flexible and conditional administration of the MMPI-2-RF among neuropsychological evaluations (PC)

Emily Barni*, Undergraduate; Dr. Anthony Tarescavage, Department of Psychology, JCU

Neuropsychological evaluations are used to evaluate and guide treatment of individuals experiencing cognitive deficits. Studies have found that these cognitive deficits are frequently comorbid with psychological problems and impaired psychosocial functioning (Heaton & Pendleton, 1981; Woo, Rosenblat, Kakar, Bahk, & McIntyre, 2016). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a flexible and conditional administration (FCA) for the MMPI-2-RF in archival samples of neuropsychological evaluations to evaluate accuracy and time savings. The sample included neuropsychological evaluations of 253 individuals (168 males and 85 females). Using a simulated FCA design, the results show both the FCA and standard MMPI-2-RF to yield approximately the same information. The FCA also resulted in significant item savings ranging from 43% to 83%, leading to subsequent time savings dependent upon subsequent scales administered. These findings support the possible use of the FCA in neuropsychological evaluations. Implications of these findings and limitations of this study are discussed. This work was funded by the Colleran-Weaver Research Fellowship.



Rating Parental Stress (PC)

Caitlin Kenney*, Undergraduate; Dr. Tracy Masterson, Department of Psychology, JCU

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are currently diagnosed among 1 in 59 children. Parents of children with ASD report the highest perceptions of parenting stress. Difficulties with communication and controlling repetitive, disruptive behavior are typical traits of an individual with ASD which can be stressful for parents. Furthermore, age has been shown to impact parenting stress. Parenting teens with autism is associated with more stress and lower ratings of perceived social support. There are no consistent physical characteristics associated with ASD so the public may not recognize that an unexpected behavior from an individual with ASD (e.g., a tantrum in public) should warrant assistance instead of judgement. The current study seeks to examine how young adults perceive a public tantrum as a function of the age of the individual with ASD as well as priori knowledge of an autism diagnosis versus non-disclosure of the diagnosis. This research was funded by the Colleran-Weaver scholarship.



The Effect of Drug Type on a Participant's Level of Stigma (PC)

Reese Boyd*, Undergraduate; Dr. Anthony Tarescavage, Department of Psychology, JCU

Depending on what type of drug is presented, participant levels of stigma may vary (Ahern, Stuber, & Galea, 2007). Marijuana is typically viewed with a low amount of stigma (Han, Compton, Blanco, & Jones, 2018), while a drug like heroin may be seen as more dangerous (Janulis, Ferrari, & Fowler, 2015) and easier to stigmatize against. The purpose of this study was to examine how drug type (marijuana, cocaine, and heroin) effects the level of stigma a participant displays when answering stigma inventory survey questions. The data was examined by using a One-Way Within Subjects ANOVA. There was a significant main effect for drug type. Also, the mean differences for each drug type were significant. Marijuana was stigmatized the least, cocaine was stigmatized more than marijuana, and heroin was stigmatized the most. Implications of these findings and limitations of this study are discussed.



Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Parents (PC)

Jaymie Pampush*, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Dr. Anthony Tarescavage, Department of Psychology, JCU

For parents with newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) the trauma of childbirth may last well beyond the few hours of labor. It is becoming increasingly more common for parents of such children to be diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. In this analysis, I hope to find a connection between PTSD and parents of children who are in the NICU through literary analysis. While previous research points to the issue of PTSD in parents with NICU babies, little has been done to resolve the issue at hand. In this analysis however, I hope to shed light on and discuss numerous treatments that work toward a more positive mental health for parents after a high-risk birth.



Construct Validity of the CUWQ: Evidence from the MMPI-2-RF, CAT-PD-SF, and PiCD

Ivana Majerle*, Undergraduate; Dr. Anthony Tarescavage, Department of Psychology, JCU

Worry and repetitive negative thinking have been linked to emotional disorders, such as anxiety and depression (Topper, Emmelkamp, Watkins, & Ehring, 2017). In contrast, worry also has benefits related to motivation to reduce negative consequences (Sweeney & Dooley, 2017). The Constructive and Unconstructive Worry Questionnaire (CUWQ) is a recently developed measure that assesses constructive and unconstructive worry. The purpose of the current study was to further evaluate the validity of the CUWQ using data from an archival sample of 285 university students. Zero-order correlations between the CUWQ with the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011), (Simms et al., 2011), and PiCD (Oltmanns & Widiger, 2018) were examined. The CUWQ unconstructive worry scales demonstrated large convergent correlations with indicators of negative mood. The CUWQ constructive worry scales demonstrated moderate convergent correlations with indicators of positive outcomes to reduce threat. Overall, the CUWQ demonstrated adequate validity as a measure of both dimensions of worry.



Dental Anxiety and Its Effect on Pain Perception During Dental Restorations (PC)

Sana Ghiba*, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Dr. Anthony Tarescavage, Department of Psychology, JCU

Perceptions of pain can be greatly altered by psychological factors such as anxiety (Loggia, 2008). In this study, the goal was to test the relationship between dental anxiety and its effect on the perception of pain by patients undergoing dental restorations. Patients completed an anxiety questionnaire prior to the procedure, and a pain questionnaire after the procedure. A sample of 35 patients is expected. It is hypothesized that a heightened sense of anxiety will increase pain perception during the procedure.



Effect of Mindfulness Training on Positive and Negative Behavior Frequency in Children with ADHD

Arianna Soika*, Undergraduate Student; Eric Geyer, LPCC and Ralph D'Alessio, Cleveland Clinic Foundation; Dr. Helen Murphy and Dr. Cyrilla Wideman, Neuroscience Program, JCU

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) involves a pattern of hyperactive/impulsive behavior and/or inattention in an individual. Recently, Mindfulness Training (MT) has been paired with behavioral interventions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ADHD being a subtype) to teach them to control their challenging behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of MT on positive and negative behavior frequency in children with a diagnosis of ADHD. Participants were recruited from a Summer Treatment Program (STP) for Children and Adolescents with ADHD. A group of 11 children in the STP participated in MT group sessions twice per week. Data was collected using the frequency data of operationalized STP behaviors and analyzed using paired t-tests. Analyses showed that after the initial application of MT, reading scores significantly increased. Analyses also demonstrated that MT significantly decreased interruptions while increasing compliance throughout the day at STP.



Social Media Use and Personality Dysfunction (PC)

Keefe Maccarone*, Undergraduate Student; Dr. Anthony Tarescavage, Department of Psychology, JCU

The pervasive nature of social media in the modern world has raised questions regarding its impact on individuals using social media sites (SMS). Recent investigations into any harmful effects of SMS use and the characteristics of problematic SMS use are limited. Undergraduate psychology major students were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2, Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) and the Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Personality Disorder (CAT-PD) to assess personality dysfunction, as well as a brief questionnaire on the frequency and number of hours of one’s SMS use. Results indicate significant correlations between high SMS use and indicators of personality dysfunction, including behavioral dysfunction, antisocial behavior, ideas of persecution, and hypomanic behavior. Future research involving the definition of problematic SMS use and the manifestation of personality dysfunction when using SMS is warranted.



Tropical lungless salamanders: warming tolerances and population declines

Osmary Medina-Báez*, Graduate Student; Dr. James Watling, Department of Biology, JCU

Amphibians are currently the most extinction-prone clade of terrestrial vertebrates. Amphibians have declined not only in areas affected by deforestation, but also in seemingly pristine forest with low human impact. These declines are often associated with the chytrid fungus, but studies suggest that climate might play an important role in some declines. Ectotherms in the tropics are at special risk of decline because of their narrow warming tolerances (the difference between an organism’s body temperature and its tolerance to high temperatures). During field surveys in a protected area in the lowlands near Villavicencio, Colombia in summer 2008, researchers encountered an average of over 21 individuals of the lungless salamander Bolitoglossa altamazonica/night. When I surveyed the same sites during summer 2019, I encountered an average of 3.6 salamanders/night. As expected, I found lower densities at lower elevations, and a significant correlation between low warming tolerances and low population densities.



Hungry, Hungry Herpetofauna: Do Temperature and Food Availability Affect the Critical Thermal Maximum of Plethedon cinereus? (PC)

Micah Ashford* and Rachel Snyder, Graduate Students; Dr. James Watling, Department of Biology, JCU

In this study we examine the physiological effects of food availability and ambient temperature on the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus). Specifically, we investigate how food availability and resting temperature could affect their critical thermal maximum tolerance (CTmax). We took initial CTmax measurements for 102 individuals, and then divided them into three diet groups; restriction, maintenance, and supplemental, and two temperature groups; 15 degrees and 20 degrees. We fed them different amounts of food for a period of 4 weeks, and then took a final CTmax measurement. Despite a mean two-fold difference in CTmax, we failed to detect a significant effect of feeding treatment. Patterns suggest that individuals that lost the least amount of mass had lower CTmax than individuals that loss more mass. These patterns may suggest that having to dedicate more energy into digestion prevents an individual from investing more energy into acclimation.



The effect of temperature and feeding treatment on critical thermal maximum of Plethodon cinereus (PC)

Joseph Murnane*, Maya Williams, and Michael Sprenger, Undergraduates; Rachel Synder and Micah Ashford, Graduate Students; Dr. Carl Anthony and Dr. James Watling, Department of Biology, JCU

One of the greatest factors in the decline of amphibians, in particular Eastern Redback salamanders, is the threat of climate change. Once the environment becomes too warm, they are at greater risk of predation. Some factors, such as local temperature and food availability, represented by holding temperature and feeding treatment, may impact this value. In testing this, we will determine what effect holding temperature and diet, have on these salamander’s abilities to resist heat in terms of Ctmax. We hypothesized that both the salamanders in reduced feeding treatment groups and salamanders staying at a higher temperature would have lower CTmax values because of having less energy intake and more thermal stress, respectively. As the climate changes, the temperature of salamander habitat may rise and food may become less available for salamanders.



Effect of food availability and temperature acclimation on the thermal tolerance of the Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus)

Maya Williams*, Joseph Murnane, and Michael Sprenger, Undergraduates; Micah Ashford and Rachel Snyder, Graduate Students; Dr. Carl Anthony, Department of Biology, JCU

This research project looks into how food availability and temperature could affect the Eastern Red-Backed salamander (Plethodon cinereous). Specifically, this project studies the effects on the critical thermal maximum point (CTmax) of the individuals. To study this, we took 103 salamanders and divided them into two different treatments: temperature and feeding. Our study showed non-significant of the feeding treatments on body condition. The data did support our hypothesis that individuals acclimating at higher temperatures (20 degrees celsius) increased CTmax in individuals for the second trial compared to first. This could be due to the variability in environments, which created varying thermal tolerances in individuals.



Differences in chemical defenses between the dorsal and ventral regions of the green and black poison frog, Dendrobates auratus

Nina Savastano*, Undergraduate; Dr. Ralph A. Saporito, Department of Biology, JCU

Poison frogs use chemical defenses to protect themselves from predators. These alkaloid defenses are stored in poison glands throughout the skin. The goal of this study was to determine if there is a difference in the quantity of alkaloids between dorsal and ventral skin regions. Fifteen individuals of the species Dendrobates auratus (Green and Black Poison Frog) were collected from Costa Rica, and a 6mm circular piece of skin was taken from the dorsal and ventral region of each frog. Alkaloids were isolated, identified, and quantified from these skin samples through acid-base fractionations and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study found a significantly greater quantity of alkaloids on the dorsal surface, suggesting increased protection in this body region. Interestingly, these findings are consistent with body-raising behavior in D. auratus, which is an anti-predator strategy where frogs lift and expose their dorsum to predators. Funded by the Colleran-Weaver SURF Fellowship.



Adaptive Leadership: Driving the Future of Wealth Management

Mitchell Kotheimer*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

As a fiduciary, one has the obligation to act in the best interest of another party, upholding a legal or ethical relationship of trust. In the Wealth Management industry, trust and integrity are central to any relationship. Although professionals are often responsible for managing significant amounts of money, client expectations, goals, and risk tolerance are always on the mind of the fiduciary. In a field that has shifted from brokers making hundreds of dollars off of one trade, to commission-based products and ETF's, the field of Wealth Management continues to experience rapid changes in client needs and expectations. As a leader in this field, one must adapt to changing market conditions, client expectations, laws and regulations, and the management of one’s own team. Through my research, I have identified how adaptive leaders are currently handling the future of wealth management in an effort to uphold their fiduciary duty and keep both shareholders and stakeholders happy.



Coaching leadership styles throughout different levels of competition

Kody Kidd*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

The poster will describe the different approaches coaches take to lead depending on being in high school, college, or the NFL. It will analyze the similarities and differences in the leadership styles.



Structural and dynamics properties of fatty acid binding protein 5 in the presence of known and novel ligands

Anwaar Eddir*, Undergraduate; Dr. Chrystal Bruce, Department of Chemistry, JCU

Abstract-Molecular dynamics of intracellular lipid binding proteins, iLBPs, (Fatty Acid Binding Proteins, FABP5) in different forms, apo and holo form, will be stimulated when bound to arotinoid acid. Once the molecular dynamics is simulated and computerized it will give an insight on how the arotinoid acid binds with the FABP5. As the FABP5 moves to the different forms, it can be shown how the arotinoid acid binds and reacts differently. The binding can affect the functionality of the arotinoid acid. Arotinoid acid is essential as it acts a retinoic acid receptor, RAR. RAR are a type of nuclear receptors of ligand-activated transcription factors. Activating the transcription of target genes when they are in ligands’ presences is their main function. Understanding the binding in molecular dynamics will further understand the functionality of arotinoid acid.



Multinational Leadership in International Business

Noah Paulsen*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

In today's business climate, working globally (either externally or internally) is quickly becoming almost non-negotiable as nearly any business has to accommodate some degree of globalization. It can take many forms such as corresponding with intra-company teams abroad, negotiating with off shore suppliers, and more. This presents an interesting task to leaders, especially, as there are many unique challenges that come with doing business in a global setting. To better understand this facet of business, leaders in the field were interviewed on how they handle their day to day responsibilities and their responses were analyzed to see what, if any, trends emerged.



Leadership in Research

Michelle Glawitsch*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

Experts in the field of laboratory research and leadership often need to work as a team to achieve results. They have a focus on a common goal to achieve tasks and exceptional interpersonal skills to foster communication and collaboration. Team leadership is not uncommon in modern organizations, especially in a lab setting, considering that tasks can be rather complex.



Evaluating the effectiveness of donning compressive garments for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder on walking, sitting, and classroom behavior

Rachel Marciano*, Undergraduate, Honors Program; Destiny Kaznoch and Allison Newman, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation

Conflicting research has been published pertaining to the effectiveness of weighted vests and compression vests for reducing stereotypical behaviors in children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. By enhancing the truncal stability and proprioceptive input, the child has to access their environment less, and can attend to their tasks with less effort. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a SPIO Vest® on reducing self-interfering or disruptive behaviors, and on improving walking and sitting skills. Over the course of at least twenty days, ten children diagnosed with ASD wore a SPIO Vest® for the full school day. The preliminary results show that the SPIO Vest® did not significantly reduce self-interfering or disruptive behaviors.




Situational Leadership in Medical Professionals 

John Moynihan*, Undergraduate, Leadership Scholar; Dr. Kyle O’Dell

Unlike many other industries, the medical industry is constantly changing. From the creation of new equipment to have more accurate results to new viruses to battle, doctors have to be able to lead under a constantly fluctuating environment. One leadership style, situational leadership, is able to accommodate for this oscillating atmosphere. To gain a greater understanding of how this leadership style works in the medical field, five interviews of five different, yet successful medical professionals were conducted. Based on the results, it can be seen how situational leaders are able to thrive in the medical field.