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Master’s Essays written to satisfy requirements in the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science should adhere to standards set by the John Carroll University Graduate School, as well as the following departmental standards regarding style:

(Note to graduate students: if you wish to use TeX to prepare your essay, Dr. Shick has a template that you are welcome to use, which will satisfy the requirements listed below.)

  1. Document Preparation Software

Essays may be written using any document preparation system of the student’s choice, such as TeX, LaTeX, or Microsoft Word, provided the formatting guidelines listed below are satisfied and all mathematical symbols included in the essay can be typed using the system. Exceptions to the style guidelines given in items 2 and 3 below are permissible for portions of the essay which are separate documents in and of themselves; for example, sample handouts which are intended as master copies for K-12 teachers to use in the classroom.

  1. Typeface and Line Spacing

The typeface (font) should be in the Roman family consistent with one of the following size/line spacing guidelines:

  1. In TeX, the default is Computer Modern Roman. Using the default font size of 10 point with magnification magstep1 yields line spacing of 5 lines per inch.
  2. In LaTeX, the default is Computer Modern Roman. Using 12 point font size with baselinestretch 1.1 yields line spacing of 5 lines per inch.
  3. In Word, the Times New Roman font with size 12 point and 1.5 line spacing option yields 4 lines per inch.


  1. Page Setup

The main body of text should be both right and left justified on the page.

According to Graduate School regulations, page numbers should be located at the bottom center of each page. Top, bottom, and right margins should all be one inch, while left margin should be one and one-half inch.

  1. Table of Contents

A table of contents should be included if the paper is divided into different sections.

  1. Section Headings

If the paper is divided into sections, each section and subsection should be numbered and titled, with section titles in boldface capital letters.

  1. Theorems, Definitions, etc

Theorems, propositions, lemmas, corollaries, and conjectures should be numbered, set off from text and italicized, with boldface label. The conclusion of proofs should be indicated with an appropriate symbol. Definitions should be set off from text and given boldface label.

  1. Equations and Expressions

Displayed equations and expressions should be set off from text, centered, and, if referred to elsewhere in the document, numbered.

  1. Figures and Diagrams

Figures and diagrams may be embedded in the text. If referred to elsewhere in the document, they should be numbered.

  1. Footnotes

Footnotes should be kept to a minimum. When used, they should be located at the bottom of the page on which they are referred to in the text.

  1. References

The reference page should list all references in numbered format, ordered alphabetically. Examples of formatting for book, journal article, and internet references follow. When referred to within the body of the document, references should be given in the form of square brackets or an ordered pair in square brackets, where the first element of the ordered pair is the reference number from the reference page, the second element is the location within that reference.

  1. Any style issues not covered by the guidelines outlined above shall be handled at the discretion of the faculty adviser.

Examples for Reference page:

[1] Ben-Porath, Denise D., and Stuart P. Taylor. “The Effects of Diazepam (Valium) and Aggressive Disposition on Human Aggression: An Experimental Investigation.” Addictive Behaviors 27 (2002): 167-77.

[2] Contreni, John J., and Santa Casciani, eds. Word, Image, Number: Communication in the Middle Ages. Belgium: Brepols Publishers, 2002.

[3] Gensler, Harry J. Introduction to Logic. London: Routledge, 2002.

[4] Lauritzen, Paul. “Should Intelligent Design Be Taught in Science Class?” Columbus Dispatch 8 Mar. 2002.

[5] Spitznagel, Carl. “Interactive Mathematics on the Web: LiveMath.” Rev. of LiveMath. Journal of Online Mathematics and its Applications 2 (2002).<>.